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Thoughts and Essays that explore the world of Technology, Computers, Photography, History and Family.

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Category: On this Day…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbGrowing up in the 1950s put me at the beginning of the rock-n-roll revolution. It was an exciting time since we had the choice between the songs of the big bands, songs by the classical country-western artists, and the new breed of rock and roll artists. Bill Halley and his Comets was among the first of these latter artists. These performers were exciting. They sang songs in stylings that responded to the interests and needs of those entering their teenaged years in the latter 1950s. Among the top stars that we danced to at junior high and high school dances were Buddy Holly and his Crickets, Ritchie Valens, and, of course, “The Big Bopper” himself!

Holly Monument

But we were also a generation that saw some of our biggest heroes lost to accidents and assassination. There was, of course, the assassination of our young, dynamic President, John F. Kennedy. We would lose several to automobile accidents — Patsy Cline and Jane Mansfield. Then there were the (alleged) suicides like that of Marilyn Monroe. And in 1959, there was the event that we look at today — the small plane crash in Iowa that took three of the bright, rising stars of Rock and Roll.

In the cold of winter in the upper mid-west, a small Cessna took off after an evening performance with three of the emerging great idols of the teen generation — Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and “The Big Bopper” J.P. Richardson. I can still remember listening to “Peggy Sue,” “Donna,” “La Bamba,” and “Chantilly Lace” at dances and parties. Those were the songs that captivated our spirits with their catchy rhythms and lyrics. They were also the first of a period of songs that were kept to between two and three minutes so that they could get more air play on the radio. These were the songs that I listened to on KFWB and KRLA.

Without further delay, let’s jump into the exploration of this tragic event and the young artists that we lost on that day… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4391 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Rock-N-Roll:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/rock-n-roll.html ]

    

“You can’t stop rock-n-roll!”
— Dee Snider

“You know, there have been a lot of casualties in rock-n-roll.”
— Warren Cuccurullo

“Without Elvis none of us could have made it.”
— Buddy Holly

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbOn the world stage, men have been the leaders. This is not because they have been the best or even the best prepared for the tasks of running a country or business. This reflects the laws and privileges of the white male in Western society. Women were treated as property, with no rights of their own except for those bestowed on their husbands; women were the wives, mistresses, and courtesans of the men in their lives. While there were some notable exceptions, such as monarchs like Queen Elizabeth I of England, Queen Victoria of England, Queen Isabella of Spain, and Catherine the Great of Russia, women were not permitted to take their rightful place in Western society.

Amritsar-golden-temple-00

In America, women started their crusade for equality and the vote from the mid-19th century. The Seneca (New York) Conference held in 1848 was a good first step in this process; powerful rights crusaders like Frederick Douglass intervened on the part of women’s rights as well as those of slaves. But women in the U.S. would not gain the vote until the passage of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. Women since that time have served in the Congress and Statehouses, but none have been elected or even nominated for the Presidency of these United States. The situation was different in other countries.

It took the small country Sri Lanka (Ceylon) to have the first female leader of a country. Sirimaro Bandananaike became Prime minister in 1960. In neighboring India, the third Prime Minister was Indira Gandhi who took office in 1966. And it would be 1969 before Golda Meir started the first of her four terms as Prime Minister of Israel. But it would be at least two decades later before Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister of Great Britain in the 1990s. Angela Merkel would not become the Chancellor of Germany until 2005. We must view these pioneers with great respect and admiration.

Hopefully, this signals a time when women have their own identities and do not need to live in the shadow of a man. As I was doing research on women photographers in the 19th century, they were hard to find. Most of them ran the studios, developed the film, and ran the business. But it was the husband’s name that was on the prints and the studio. Yes, some were recognized on their own, but except for Julia Margaret Cameron of Britain, most of the women who had their name associated with their photography were either not married or Lesbians. Anyway, let’s hope that women can and will take their rightful place in society, not hidden behind (or “under”) a man.

Let get on with our exploration of the life and leadership of India’s Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4579 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Indira Gandhi:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/i/indira_gandhi.html ]

    

“Anger is never without an argument, but seldom with a good one.”
— Indira Gandhi

“Forgiveness is a virtue of the brave.”
— Indira Gandhi

“If I die a violent death, as some fear and a few are plotting, I know that the violence will be in the thought and the action of the assassins, not in my dying. If I die a violent death, as some fear and a few are plotting, I know that the violence will be in the thought and the action of the assassins, not in my dying.”
— Indira Gandhi

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbHenry Ford sits amongst those luminous inventors and innovators of the last part of the 19th century. Around him are Thomas Edison, known for the light bulb, direct current, the phonograph, movie technology, and Alexander Graham Bell, known for the telephone. These men were the giants. They brought light, entertainment, and communication to the lives of a nation. But Henry Ford’s contribution was much more profound — he gave the nation mobility! No longer were the common man living in American cities, towns, and villages would be restricted to their locales if they could afford the few hundred dollars for a used Model T.

AssemblyLine

The major contribution of Henry Ford was the design of an innovative manufacturing production techniques — the assembly line. Automobiles prior to Henry Ford were produced the same way that luxurious means of transportation had been made for decades, if not centuries. A single craftsman or a small group of skilled craftsmen worked on a single vehicle through its construction. This was the technique used on coaches, railroad cars, and automobile with notable nameplates such as Pullman (railroad coaches). But this craftsman-based approach made each unit expensive to create and, therefore, expensive to buy. The common man was excluded from this new transportation opportunity. Henry Ford’s Model T was created on an assembly line where each worker did only one part of the manufacturing process; this made automobiles inexpensive and available to a wider audience!

The revolution of the automobile had a profound effect upon American society. Not only did it provide mobility beyond a farmer’s local village, but he could now use a tractor to tend his fields. Americans and foreign immigrants were put to work building roads to replace the carriage tracks had previously existed. And the nation was on the move. Eventually, a national web of highways tried together the nation like no railroad had been able to do. This was formalized by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in the mid-1950s signed legislation that created the Interstate Highway System.

Not all the changes produced by the automobile were positive. These vehicles were adapted as transports and ambulances during World War I. But cars were also used to transport illegal alcohol during Prohibition. Gangsters used the car to carry their terror and death around large cities in our country. Also, the automobile is said to have contributed to the breakdown of morals in young people, providing them with a mobile “passion pits” in which to loose themselves in the moment.

Bonnie_Clyde_Car

Today, we suffer with air pollution from vehicle exhaust. But on the bright side, new technologies have been developed in recent years to provide mobility with clean air. That is progress.

Now, let’s get started with our exploration of Henry Ford, the Ford Motor Company, and the low-cost automobile… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4472 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Henry Ford:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/h/henry_ford.html ]

    

“A bore is a person who opens his mouth and puts his feats in it.”
— Henry Ford

“An idealist is a person who helps other people to be prosperous.”
— Henry Ford

“Any colour – so long as it’s black.”
— Henry Ford

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbThe 1960s was a groundbreaking era on many fronts. It saw a major push for women’s rights in all areas of life, especially the workplace and in the control of their bodies. Students were pushing for more say in their college education, especially curriculum. The United States was fighting an unpopular war in Southeast Asia — Vietnam. And, of course, there was the demand of African Americans and Hispanics for equal rights in fact, not just in theory. Martin Luther King, Jr. led marches throughout the South against the KKK and Jim Crow Laws. In California, Caesar Chavez was leading Hispanic marchers in the Table Grape Boycott to win better working conditions for California’s migrant field workers..

Kennedy_Giving_Historic_Speech_to_Congress_-_GPN-2000-001658

A new, young president, John F. Kennedy, came on the scene with a new vision for our country. He called for our people to contribute to the betterment of the needy in other countries through Service by Peace Corp volunteers. He called on our science and engineering community to put a man on the moon, and return him safely to earth, by the end of the decade of the 1960s. But he also wanted to help improve the lot of those living in the oft-neglected urban areas of our country. To this end, he proposed a new, cabinet-level Department of Housing and Urban Development. But the Congress dominated by Republicans and conservative Southern Democrats blocked him on this move.

The idea of a separate department to provide better housing to urban dwellers was not dead. The torch was picked up and carried by President Lyndon B. Johnson following the assassination of JFK. Johnson pushed multiple pieces of Civil Rights legislation through the Congress, including the Voting Rights Act. In 1965, he was able to achieve passage of a bill to create the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). As the new cabinet-level Secretary of the department, he appointed the long time urban affairs expert and administrator — Robert C. Weaver. Weaver was confirmed by the Senate and became the first African American Cabinet Member. He paved the way for other African Americans and Hispanics to make their rightful contributions to the government of this great country.

P091009CK-0040.jpg

But now, let’s get started with our exploration of the first Secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, who, by the way, was an African American. Weaver was well qualified for the post by his education and experience in government from the time of the Black Cabinet created by FDR during the years of the New Deal. So, let us begin… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 2670 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Urban:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/urban.html ]

    

“Companies operating in urban communities have a tremendous ripple effect.”
— Michael Porter

“Everyone’s looking to the urban scene for inspiration now.”
— Robin Gibb

“How does he support Clinton’s urban agenda? He doesn’t know what it is.”
— Maxine Waters

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbWe look back on a series of events that meant much to our country from the 1920s to the 1950s. A major event was the introduction of the radio into homes of America. Prior to the mid-1920s, entertainment meant either going to the local movie theater, go to a live theater (generally in the larger towns), or bringing out the record player and the recording cylinders; flat, 78 rpm records and their players were just starting to appear at this time. Radio broke onto the scene with its music and comedy which changed the “face” The American home.

Amos and Andy on Louella Parsons Show

I remember fondly the console radios at both of my grandmothers’ houses. These were not fancy stereo radios, or even hi-fidelity; they were basic units in the beginning just like the initial TVs of the late 1940s had small screens and were relatively primitive by today’s standards. In the mid-1920s, the radio units were simple and the content available was relatively meager as well. Most of this content was recorded music, live bands (on weekends), and some early comedy shows. And, of course, there was radio news. If you lived in or near a major city you were in luck since you would be able to receive a strong radio signal from your local station. If you lived farther away, you may be able to receive a signal in appropriate weather, but often times you were just plane out of luck.

Thus, some radio stations were given permission to boost their signal strength and became one of the few “clear channel” stations. One such station in Chicago was WMAQ(AM). Why was this important? Because the farmers of the extended area needed to hear the weather broadcast to know when they needed to protect their fields and/or livestock. These stations became the center of a network of stations associated with one of the national networks, such as the National Broadcasting Corporation. These stations and networks also became the home of some of the emerging radio situation comedies, like Amos ‘n’ Andy, Fibber McGee and Molly, Burns and Allen, and others.

In this environment, two broadcasters from North Carolina, Charles Correll and Freeman Gosden. These two had developed a comedy show for WGN (Chicago) called “Sam and Henry”. When a difference of opinion developed between WGN management and the two broadcasters, the latter left WGN for WMAQ to develop a new program: “Amos ‘n’ Andy”. This sitcom featured the interaction of two black men from the south and a small group of their friends, mainly males. Correll and Gosden assumed the roles of all characters and adopted stereotyped characters who spoke with a stereotyped speech pattern. On radio, it wasn’t apparent that two white men were providing the voices of two black men living in Chicago.

However, when the series was adapted for television, a whole new scenario arose. White actors in black face would not pass muster. The stereotyping and hypocrisy became apparent and demanded change. In fact, the NAACP arose to demand that black actors be employed. The also demanded a change in the demeaning portrayal of blacks. Check out these two videos available online for more information on this confrontation…

Racial Stereotyping (Part 1 of 2), Television: Inside & Out…  (7:55)

[ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMjJyJtVbCw&feature=player_detailpage ]

Racial Stereotyping (Part 2 of 2), Television: Inside & Out…  (6:56)

[ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=npbl1zfwsEw&feature=player_detailpage ]

But now let’s get started on our exploration of Amos ‘n’ Andy and some of the history of the development of this pioneering comedy series on the radio in the mid-1920s… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4680 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Radio:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/radio.html ]

    

“Gossip is the Devil’s radio.”
— George Harrison

“If it weren’t for Philo T. Farnsworth, inventor of television, we’d still be eating frozen radio dinners.”
— Johnny Carson

“Radio is a bag of mediocrity where little men with carbon minds wallow in sluice of their own making.”
— Fred Allen

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbOur country today has been beset by the endemic if not epidemic spread of health maladies — Cancer (of various types), obesity, AIDS, and smoking. The nation’s medical establishment has set out, under the leadership of the Surgeon General, to bring these health hazards under control. The National Institutes of Health research is funding on-going research on the causes and cures for cancer and AIDS. But in 1964, the Surgeon General, Luther Terry, took a bold move — he organized a group of advisors who came up with a revolutionary recommendation, a WARNING LABEL was needed on all tobacco products!

Smoking and health cover

This elicited the expected reaction from the tobacco companies who questioned the government’s right to require such a notice. They fought it, but lost. Presently, there is a move to require more graphic warnings on tobacco products, especially cigarettes. Once more, the tobacco companies are battling against this requirement. But it will go through.

But is this a deterrent to the smoking habit? Not really. Smoking is an addictive habit that is often started early in life. Of course, the tobacco companies promote that. But cigarette commercials were banned early from children’s hours of TV watching. Radio and billboards were also banned. Smoking in movies and on TV has also been discouraged. But people still smoke.

Cities and states have passed laws, such as California’s Proposition 65 approved by the people in 1986, in an attempt to stem the tide of the habit. Smoking has been banned within buildings, restaurants, bars, etc. Designated smoking areas have been established outside to be used even in inclement weather. These bans have been extended to some apartments and homes on the basis of the dangers from “second-hand” smoke. Where will this all end? Who knows. Habits are hard to break and we can only assume that limiting and punitive measures will continue to be imposed, hoping that finally a solution will be reached.

Now, we need the same zeal to be brought against AIDS and other maladies. Obesity is much harder to legislate, but even there efforts have been started to require school lunches to be “healthy”. The battle really begins there in defining what is a healthy diet? But that is a topic for another day.

Let us now turn our attention to the action of Surgeon General Luther Terry and his warning label on cigarette packages… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 2973 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Cigarettes:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/cigarette.html ]

    

“Fame is being asked to sign your autograph on the back of a cigarette packet.”
— Billy Connolly

“I never smoked a cigarette until I was nine.”
— H. L. Mencken

“I met the surgeon general – he offered me a cigarette.”
— Rodney Dangerfield

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbDuring my early university teaching career, I was teaching Psychology. These were the late 60s (1960s, that is!) and many new trends were catching hold on education, including the Montessori School movement. Yes, these schools had been around since the first one was established by Maria Montessori in Rome, Italy, in 1907. This first school served children in the poor neighborhoods and used an innovative approach that was student-centric as opposed to the teacher-centric approach employed in American schools. But changes were occurring on the American educational scene.

MontessoriPhonograms

A Swiss psychologist, Jean Piaget, was capturing the attention of psychologists on both sides of the pond. His approach emphasized a developmental approach to psychological development. This approach talked about the child’s development passing through several stages, each of which had it own way of “seeing” the world. These stages also were thought to determine how children learn during that stage and what the best method of instruction would be effective. Education was to be child-centric and emphasized child-directed discussions. It wasn’t until the child reached the final stage at age 11 or 12 that the typical learning approach used by our school would be effective.

The theory of Piaget reinvigorated the Montessori school movement in this country. Today, both the Montessori method and the Montessori Schools are thriving. They help children to learn more effectively. While they may not always show these results on the standardized tests that seem to have become “King” among today’s educators, these processes do seem to produce happy, well-adjusted, and successful adults. But that is another topic for another day.

Let us now dive into our exploration of Marie Montessori and her innovative method for teaching the disadvantaged children of Rome… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4067 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Maria Montessori:

    

“Establishing lasting peace is the work of education; all politics can do is keep us out of war.”
— Maria Montessori

“Free the child’s potential, and you will transform him into the world.”
— Maria Montessori

“If help and salvation are to come, they can only come from the children, for the children are the makers of men.”
— Maria Montessori

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbTruman was well-known for his desk sign, “The Buck Stops Here.” But the relatively inexperienced haberdasher turned politician from Missouri. He was elected as vice-president in the 1944 election with FDR. With the war approaching completion in Europe, FDR left Truman out of the “loop.” When FDR died suddenly, Truman was thrust upon the world scene to negotiate with the experienced world leader, Churchill and Stalin. He is outmatched, but being from Missouri, he rises to the occasion to hold his own.

In the post-war turmoil with Stalin occupying eastern Europe and spreading his communist doctrine, Truman put forward a number of diplomatic initiatives to help Europe get through those trying times. He put forward the Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, implemented the Berlin Airlift to help the West Berliners survive Stalin’s blockade, and supported the United Nations. But it was on the home from where he probably made the greatest difference.

Medicare

Truman put forth his 21 Points for the reshaping America to become more equitable and provide civil rights to all. While he could not get most of these points through the very conservative, contrary Congress, he created the Marines and Air Force as separate services within the military. More importantly, he ordered the desegregation of the military; the entire country would not realize the benefits of desegregation until the mid-1960s under LBJ’s Great Society. His Fair Deal program of social reforms was an attempt to carry on the New Deal started by FDR and would reach realization under the Great Society of LBJ.

This post is an attempt to tie together these programs of social reform over the span of three democratic administrations. These programs obtained some success that survived the attack of conservative republican administrations that worked to undo those changes that did not require changes in major laws. They were more or less picked apart. Once again, the Obama administration is attempting to finish the reform job, at least on universal health care. This is a goal that has eluded many, many administrations over the last century!

So, let’s get on with our exploration of Harry Truman’s “Fair Deal” program of social reforms. It will be up to the reader to read the details of these reforms due to space limitations… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4215 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Harry S. Truman:

    

“A President cannot always be popular.”
— Harry S. Truman

“The President is always abused. If he isn’t, he isn’t doing anything.”
— Harry S. Truman

“There is nothing new in the world except the history you do not know.”
— Harry S. Truman

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbFew accomplishments capture the imagination more than that of the New Zealander, Edmund Hillary, when he successfully reached the summit of Mt. Everest, the tallest point on earth in 1953. He and his Nepali sherpa climbing companion, Tenzing Norgay, successfully reached that fabled summit and were at the top of the world! The next most famous event was the discovery of both the North and South Poles earlier in the 20th century.

Terra_nova_hut_inside

The race to the South Pole by was ultimately won in December of 1911 by the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, but another team, lead by Robert Falcon Scott would reach it in January of 1912. Neither of these men would make the return trip alive. During the International Geophysical Year of 1958, Sir Edmund Hillary led a group of explorers on the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition on a trek across Antarctica in commemoration of the feat of those two earlier heroes. Ironically, this was the same year that saw the Russians launch the first man-made satellite. Sputnik I, into space, heating up the cold war and challenging America’s technology leadership in the world.

The Commonwealth represented a coalition of western nations to commemorate mankind’s challenge to nature while the latter event (Sputnik) put the world’s two superpowers on a collision course toward nuclear war. It is interesting to note that the trans-Antarctic expedition was almost as challenging to man in 1958 as it had been to the original explorers in 1911-12. The launch of Sputnik triggered events that eventually led, in 1969, to man taking his first steps on another frontier, the Moon. We are now peacefully sharing the frontiers of space with a joint effort of the international community, not using it for the destruction of mankind.

But, let us now get into an examination of the events that led to man’s search and discovery of the South Pole, as commemorated by the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4063 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Sir Edmund Hillary (Antarctica):

    

“It is not the mountain we conquer but ourselves.”
— Edmund Hillary

“There is precious little in civilization to appeal to a Yeti.”
— Edmund Hillary

“People do not decide to become extraordinary. They decide to accomplish extraordinary things.”
— Edmund Hillary

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbOver the past half century, we have seen some of the greatest scourges of history reach the point of virtual eradication. Smallpox, Polio, and Rubella have all but disappeared from the developed countries and most of the third world countries. These crippling and deadly diseases are no longer a worry for most parents. In recent years, there has been been some rebound of these diseases following an increasing numbers of more affluent parents withholding the early childhood vaccinations due to their fear of autism. Yes, AIDS is still resistant to elimination, but we hold out hope that a cure for that malady will soon be found.

Iron_lung_CDC

But that was not the case during the first half of the 20th century. Smallpox was still a killer. But the most feared malady was the incapacitating threat to young children. Our wartime president, Franklin D. Roosevelt, was stricken with it in the 1920s, leaving his legs crippled. This threat was Infantile Paralysis (Polio) and its effects could range from mild to severe disfigurement and/or death. It forced those whose lungs were effected to be placed in “Iron Lungs” to enable them to breath. I grew up in Downey and that was the location of a large hospital dedicated to the treatment of polio — Rancho Los Amigos Hospital.

Hope came during the early 1950s when Jonas Salk developed a Polio Vaccine. Children were protected and polio became a rare occurrence. After a few years, Rancho Los Amigos was re-tasked to serve as a mental hospital.

And who do we have to thank for these advances in fighting polio and other communicable diseases? The March of Dimes. It all got started when children in the late 1930s were asked to send in their spare dimes to President Roosevelt. By 1938, sufficient funds had arrived that prompted FDR to create the group that became the March of Dimes. To borrow the words of another: “Thank you Mr. President!”.

But, let’s get on with our exploration of the history and work of the March of Dimes… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3632 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Polio:

    

“Having children made us look differently at all these things that we take for granted, like taking your child to get a vaccine against measles or polio.”
— Melinda Gates

“Nature [is] that lovely lady to whom we owe polio, leprosy, smallpox, syphilis, tuberculosis, cancer.”
— Anonymous

“When I worked on the polio vaccine, I had a theory. I guided each [experiment] by imagining myself in the phenomenon in which I was interested. The intuitive realm … the realm of the imagination guides my thinking.”
— Jonas Salk

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