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Prof. Boerner's Explorations

Thoughts and Essays that explore the world of Technology, Computers, Photography, History and Family.


Archive for November 23rd, 2009
by Gerald Boerner


“Don’t shoot until you feel it in your gut.”
— Lisette Model

“They say my prints are bad, darling they should see my negatives.”
— Lisette Model

“Photography is the easiest art, which perhaps makes it the hardest.”
— Lisette Model

“New images surround us everywhere. They are invisible only because of sterile routine convention and fear.”
— Lisette Model

“Never take a picture of anything you are not passionately interested in.”
— Lisette Model, Photographer

“The camera is an instrument of detection. We photograph not only what we know, but also what we don’t know.”
— Lisette Model

“… photography is an art form which means: human beings expressing their understanding of and connection with life, themselves, and other human beings.”
— Lisette Model

“Speed, the fundamental condition of the activities of our day is the powere of photography, indeed the modern art of today, the art of split second.”
— Lisette Model

“I have often been asked what I wanted to prove by my photographs. The answer is, I don’t want to prove anything. They prove to me, and I am the one who gets the lesson.”
— Lisette Model

“This photographic thing has changed the entire vision of the world. It will go through every activity of humanity – science, medicine, space, ESP, for peace, against peace, entertainment, television, movies, all of them – you will not find one without photography.” 
— Lisette Model

“I am a passionate lover of the snapshot, because of all photographic images, it comes closest to the truth … the snapshooter[‘s] pictures have an apparent disorder and imperfection which is exactly their appeal and their style.”
— Lisette Model


Lisette Model (1901 – 1983)

Lisette Model Lisette Model (born Elise Amelie Felicie Stern) was an Austrian-born American photographer.

Lisette Model was born Elise Felic Amelie Stern in Vienna, Austria. Her father was an Italian/Austrian doctor of Jewish descent attached to the Austro-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Army and, later, to the International Red Cross; her mother was French and Roman Catholic, and Model was baptized into her mother’s faith. Two years after her birth, her parents changed their family name to Seybert. According to interview testimony from her older brother, she was sexually molested by her father, though the full extent of his abuse remains unclear.

She was primarily educated by a series of private tutors, achieving fluency in three languages. At age 19, she began studying music with composer Arnold Schönberg, and was familiar to members of his circle. "If ever in my life I had one teacher and one great influence, it was Schönberg," she said.

Her Path to Photography

model_gambler Another refugee who had to stoop to hustling, scrambling, and scraping by, and ultimately to street photography to support herself, was Lisette Model. Although she came from Vienna, Model had a background similar to Gutmann’s, which gave her a Berliner’s perspective on life. She too had come from a wealthy family and studied painting before taking up photography. She had been exposed to avant garde art and unconventional ideas from the time she was a child, when her favorite playmate was the daughter of composer (and future emigre to Hollywood) Arnold Schoenberg. Like Gutmann, Model turned to photography at the suggestion of a friend who pointed out that with the rise of Hitler, it might be useful to have an itinerant profession.

Model_Lower East SideSince she was living then in Paris with her Russian Jewish husband, this seemed to Model a good idea. With some instruction from Kertesz’s wife, Elizabeth, she set out for the south of France to try her hand at street photography. From the very beginning she sought out subjects who would suggest the corruptness of society. Pictures from the test rolls she shot along the Promenade des Anglais in Nice could easily be taken for caricatures George Grosz had drawn of cabaret goers on the Kurfurstendamm.

Like Grosz, Model saw her subjects as misshapen, almost beastly. A wealthy dowager is photographed at a moment when her face has exactly the same expression as her lapdog’s. A gambler sunning himself in a chair watches Model with a lizard eye and hands curled like the talons of a pet bird of prey gripping its perch. Model worked often in the late afternoon, thus giving us the impression that darkness is about to descend on the world in which these people live. When she got back to Paris, she continued her project by making pictures of the poor that complemented those she had done of the rich. She again photographed the obese and the grotesque.

model_we_mourn_our_lossPetite and refined though Model was, her photographs are as aggressive as an assault with a blunt instrument. Nearly all are the most direct of street portraits, head on confrontations with unattractive subjects. They have a brutal look whose relentless consistency from one picture to the next implies a universal brutishness inherent in man himself. It’s a look Model emphasized by always insisting on big (16 x 20"), rough prints. And in America she continued to see the world in the same terms, photographing both derelicts and society matrons, so that they reflected each other’s grossness. She found in American vulgarity the perfect counterpoint to the European decadence she had left behind.

model_fashion_showModel says that she was shocked when she began developing her photographs, early in her career, “so great was the difference between what I saw and what came out of my camera.” It is this strange disjunction between the sympathetic and the predatory, in her work and in that of her successors, that both compels and perplexes us. Model speaks of her passionate response to her subjects, to the vitality they exude or the life they wear on their faces and bodies. In explaining her images of overweight women and men, for instance, she describes her attraction to large, round shapes. And yet somehow, wrongly or rightly, we infer a less loving and more ruthless vision at work. Something transformative is happening inside her camera—and behind our eyes.

Emigrating to the U.S.

Model_LowerShe married Evsa Model in 1937 and the following year they emigrated to join her husband’s sister in Manhattan. There she supported herself as a photographer, having work published regularly in Harper’s Bazaar by editors Carmel Snow and Alexey Brodovitch. Model eventually became a member of the New York ‘Photo League,’ which would host her first dedicated showing.

The only change that seems to have come over her photography was in the direction of a greater Expressionism, making her images still more like Gutmann’s and Grosz’s. Model began photographing reflections of the street in shop windows in a way that makes New York look like the town in which Dr. Caligari lived. She also started a series in which she lowered the camera to the level of the sidewalk to catch the blurry tangle of passing feet. This imagery is straight out of the bad dreams of a refugee from Nazism. The pictures have an oppressive, claustrophobic feeling, as if made by somebody who had lost her footing in a panic in the streets and was being trampled by the crowd.

model_running_legs2Some of Model’s other pictures from the 1940s, in which she aimed up at passersby at close range, are a variation on the same theme. In one, a banker in a bowler walks under the statue of George Washington on Wall Street. The statue extends its hand in what looks like a gesture meant to keep someone on his knees from rising. A massive, grisly figure, so close that he is out of focus, the banker has a shadow like a bandit’s mask concealing his eyes. He bears down on Model as if about to run her over. She appears to be literally beneath his notice.

Mode_Window ReflectionThus does a misanthropy that began in Nice continue in New York until, in Venezuela in the 1950s, it seems to have come full circle to have become in effect a vicious circle – in some pictures that she took of life-size voodoo dolls. Sitting up in chairs, these effigies could almost be the mummified corpses of real people. (They look like the slowly decomposing remains of the guests at the Riviera hotels whom Model had photographed in their chairs along the Promenade des Anglais almost twenty years earlier.)

Like Gutmann, Model had a long career as a teacher but a relatively short one as a working photographer. Although she got a steady stream of assignments from Harper’s Bazaar for a while, those ended by 1951, and virtually all the photographs for which she is known were taken in the thirties and forties. In fact, her entire American reputation was built on those few test rolls shot on the Riviera. That she was praised effusively for such a meager body of work only made her initial success in America seem to her as specious and potentially transient as life had proven to be in Europe.

In 1951, Model was invited to teach at the New School for Social Research in New York City, where her longtime friend Berenice Abbott was also teaching photography. Model’s best known pupil was Diane Arbus, who studied under her in 1957, and Arbus owed much of her early technique to Model’s example. Model continued to teach until her death in New York City in 1983.

Honors and Collections

Public collections of her work are held at the following institutions:

  • Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City
  • Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles
  • The Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego
  • National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa


Background and biographical information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Lisette Model that can be found at…

Also see…

Masters of Photography: History of Street Photography

by Gerald Boerner


“Thanksgiving, after all, is a word of action.”
— W.J. Cameron

“Thanksgiving was never meant to be shut up in a single day.”
— Robert Caspar Lintner

“An optimist is a person who starts a new diet on Thanksgiving Day.”
— Irv Kupcinet

“Let us remember that, as much has been given us, much will be expected from us, and that true homage comes from the heart as well as from the lips, and shows itself in deeds.”
— Theodore Roosevelt

“Thanksgiving comes to us out of the prehistoric dimness, universal to all ages and all faiths.  At whatever straws we must grasp, there is always a time for gratitude and new beginnings.”
— J. Robert Moskin

“The unthankful heart… discovers no mercies; but let the thankful heart sweep through the day and, as the magnet finds the iron, so it will find, in every hour, some heavenly blessings!”
— Henry Ward Beecher

“Thanksgiving dinners take eighteen hours to prepare.  They are consumed in twelve minutes.  Half-times take twelve minutes.  This is not coincidence.”
— Erma Bombeck

“What we’re really talking about is a wonderful day set aside on the fourth Thursday of November when no one diets.  I mean, why else would they call it Thanksgiving?”
— Erma Bombeck

“It has been an unchallengeable American doctrine that cranberry sauce, a pink goo with overtones of sugared tomatoes, is a delectable necessity of the Thanksgiving board and that turkey is uneatable without it.”
— Alistair Cooke

“There is one day that is ours.  There is one day when all we Americans who are not self-made go back to the old home to eat saleratus biscuits and marvel how much nearer to the porch the old pump looks than it used to.  Thanksgiving Day is the one day that is purely American.”
— O. Henry


Thanksgiving: The Thanksgiving Dinner

Traditional Thanksgiving Dinner The centerpiece of contemporary Thanksgiving in the United States and Canada is a large meal, generally centered around a large roasted turkey. The majority of the dishes in the traditional American version of Thanksgiving Dinner are made from foods native to the New World, according to tradition the Pilgrims received these foods from the Native Americans. However, many of the classic traditions attributed to the first Thanksgiving are actually myths introduced later.

Historical Menus

The use of the turkey in the USA for Thanksgiving precedes Lincoln’s nationalization of the holiday in 1863. Alexander Hamilton proclaimed that no "Citizen of the United States should refrain from turkey on Thanksgiving Day," but turkey was uncommon as Thanksgiving fare until after 1800. By 1857 turkey had become part of the traditional dinner in New England.[2]

Thanksgiving_1918 Men eating a Thanksgiving dinner during World War I

A Thanksgiving Day dinner served to the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1935 included: Pickles, green olives, celery, roast turkey, oyster stew, cranberry sauce, giblet gravy, dressing, creamed asparagus tips, snowflake potatoes, baked carrots, hot rolls, fruit salad, mince meat pie, fruit cake, candies, grapes, apples, French drip coffee, cigars and cigarettes.

Thanksgiving_Dinner_Alc2 Normally a Thanksgiving dinner in the United States bears a good deal of resemblance to another feast served at Christmas: the centerpiece at both is most often a turkey. However, the spirits of these occasions are usually different: the family and friends present at a Thanksgiving table are not expected to give gifts to each other, for example, and the point of the meal is to reflect upon and be thankful for the things that have passed over the last year as well as reconnect with the people one holds close.

While most hosts will say a short prayer before the start of the meal, this is not obligatory and there is no overt religious significance to the holiday. (It is not uncommon for people of very different religious backgrounds to gather around the table, e.g., if one’s host is Jewish and one is a Christian there is no obligation for either to recite the grace.)


Because turkey is the most common main dish of a Thanksgiving dinner, Thanksgiving is sometimes colloquially called “turkey day″ or “poultry day.” In 2006, American turkey growers were expected to raise 270 million turkeys, to be processed into five billion pounds of turkey meat valued at almost $8 billion, with one third of all turkey consumption occurring in the Thanksgiving-Christmas season, and a per capita consumption of almost 18 pounds.

Roast-Turkey Most Thanksgiving turkeys are stuffed with a bread-based stuffing and roasted. Sage is the traditional herb added to the stuffing (also called dressing), along with chopped celery, carrots, and onions. Deep-fried turkey is rising in popularity, requiring special fryers to hold the large bird, and reportedly leading to fires and bad burns for those who fail to take care when dealing with a large quantity of very hot oil. In more recent years it is also true that as the wild population of turkeys has rebounded in most of the US, some will hunt and dress their turkey in the woods and then freeze it until meal preparation.

Side dishes

New_England_Thanksgiving_Dinner Many other foods are served alongside the main dish—so many that, because of the amount of food, the Thanksgiving meal is sometimes served midday or early afternoon to make time for all the eating, and preparation may begin at dawn or on days prior.

Traditional Thanksgiving foods are sometimes specific to the day, and although some of the foods might be seen at any semi-formal meal in the United States, the meal often has something of a ritual or traditional quality. Many Americans would say it is "incomplete" without cranberry sauce; stuffing or dressing; and gravy.

Other commonly served dishes include winter squash; sweet potatoes; mashed potatoes or rice (in the South and among Asians); dumplings; corn on the cob or hominy; deviled eggs; green beans or green bean casserole; sauerkraut (among those in the Mid-Atlantic; especially Baltimore), peas and carrots, bread rolls, cornbread (in the south and parts of New England), or biscuits, rutabagas or turnips; and a salad.

For dessert, various pies are often served, particularly apple pie, mincemeat pie, sweet potato pie, pumpkin pie, chocolate meringue pie and pecan pie, with the last four being particularly American.


The beverages served at Thanksgiving can vary as much as the side dishes, often depending on who is present at the table and their tastes. Spirits or cocktails occasionally may be served before the main meal. On the dinner table, unfermented Apple cider (still or sparkling) and/or wine are often served. Beaujolais nouveau is sometimes served, as "Beaujolais day" falls one week before American Thanksgiving. For children non-alcoholic beverages are served at the table as it is generally frowned upon (and often illegal) for those below the legal drinking age to consume alcohol, though in some states it is legal for those under 21 to consume alcohol when their parents are present. Pitchers of sweetened iced tea are common throughout the South.


Background and biographical information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Thanksgiving Dinner which can be found at…

by Gerald Boerner


“A woman is like a tea bag- you never know how strong she is until she gets in hot water.”
— Eleanor Roosevelt

“Beautiful young people are accidents of nature, but beautiful old people are works of art.”
— Eleanor Roosevelt

“Do what you feel in your heart to be right – for you’ll be criticized anyway. You’ll be damned if you do, and damned if you don’t.”
— Eleanor Roosevelt

“Friendship with oneself is all-important, because without it one cannot be friends with anyone else in the world.”
— Eleanor Roosevelt

“Great minds discuss ideas; Average minds discuss events; Small minds discuss people.”
— Eleanor Roosevelt

“I could not at any age be content to take my place in a corner by the fireside and simply look on.”
— Eleanor Roosevelt

“I think that somehow, we learn who we really are and then live with that decision.”
— Eleanor Roosevelt

“If someone betrays you once, it’s their fault; if they betray you twice, it’s your fault.”
— Eleanor Roosevelt

“One thing life has taught me: if you are interested, you never have to look for new interests. They come to you. When you are genuinely interested in one thing, it will always lead to something else.”
— Eleanor Roosevelt

Eleanor Roosevelt: Activist First Lady

Eleanor_Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was the First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and assumed a role as an advocate for civil rights. After her husband’s death in 1945, Roosevelt continued to be an internationally prominent author, speaker, politician, and activist for the New Deal coalition. She worked to enhance the status of working women, although she opposed the Equal Rights Amendment because she believed it would adversely affect women.

In the 1940s, Roosevelt was one of the co-founders of Freedom House and supported the formation of the United Nations. Roosevelt founded the UN Association of the United States in 1943 to advance support for the formation of the UN. She was a delegate to the UN General Assembly from 1945 and 1952, a job for which she was appointed by President Harry S. Truman and confirmed by the United States Senate. During her time at the United Nations she chaired the committee that drafted and approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. President Truman called her the “First Lady of the World” in tribute to her human rights achievements.

Active in politics for the rest of her life, Roosevelt chaired the John F. Kennedy administration’s ground-breaking committee which helped start second-wave feminism, the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women. She was one of the most admired people of the 20th century, according to Gallup’s List of Widely Admired People. She was an honorary member of the Alpha Kappa Alpha (AKA) Sorority.

Marriage and family life

In 1902 at age 17, Roosevelt returned to the United States, ending her formal education. She was later given a debutante party. She became a social worker in the East Side slums of New York.

That same year Roosevelt met her father’s fifth cousin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and was overwhelmed when the 20-year-old dashing Harvard University student demonstrated affection for her. Following a White House reception and dinner with her uncle, President Theodore Roosevelt, on New Year’s Day, 1903, Franklin’s courtship of Eleanor began. She later brought Franklin along on her rounds of the squalid tenements, a walking tour that profoundly moved the theretofore sheltered young man.

Eleanor_roosevelt_&_sara_delano_roosevelt_1908 In November 1903, they became engaged, although the engagement was not announced until December 1, 1904, at the insistence of Franklin’s mother, Sara Delano Roosevelt. She opposed the union. “I know what pain I must have caused you,” Franklin wrote his mother of his decision. But, he added, “I know my own mind, and known it for a long time, and know that I could never think otherwise.” Sara took her son on a cruise in 1904, hoping that a separation would squelch the romance, but Franklin returned to Eleanor with renewed ardor. The wedding date was fixed to accommodate President Roosevelt, who agreed to give the bride away. Her uncle’s presence focused national attention on the wedding.

Roosevelt, aged 20, married Franklin Roosevelt, aged 23, her fifth-cousin once removed, on March 17, 1905 (St. Patrick’s Day), at the adjoining townhouses of Mrs. Elizabeth Livingston Ludlow and her daughter, Susan “Cousin Susie” Parish in New York City. The Reverend Dr. Endicott Peabody, the groom’s headmaster at Groton School, performed the services. The couple spent a preliminary honeymoon of one week at Hyde Park, then set up housekeeping in an apartment in New York. That summer they went on their formal honeymoon, a three-month tour of Europe.

Although Roosevelt was always in the good graces of her uncle, Theodore Roosevelt, the pater familias of the Oyster Bay Roosevelts, as the Republican branch of the family was known, she often found herself at odds with his eldest daughter, Alice Roosevelt. Theodore felt Eleanor’s conduct to be far more responsible, socially acceptable and cooperative; in short, more “Rooseveltian” than that of the beautiful, highly photogenic, but rebellious and self-absorbed Alice, to whom he would ask, “Why can’t you be more like ‘cousin Eleanor’?” These early experiences laid the foundation for life-long strain between the two high-profile cousins. Though the youthful Alice’s comradely relationship with Franklin during the World War I years in Washington is still the object of curiosity among Rooseveltian scholars, both Eleanor’s and his relationship with Alice and other Oyster Bay Roosevelts would be aggravated by the widening political gulf between the Hyde Park and Oyster Bay families, as Franklin D. Roosevelt’s political career began to take off. In 1924, Eleanor campaigned against her cousin, New York gubernatorial candidate Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., and contributed to his loss and further strained relations between the two Roosevelt branches.

First Lady of the United States (1933 – 1945)

Following the Presidential inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt (“FDR”) on March 4, 1933, Eleanor became First Lady of the United States. Having seen the strictly circumscribed role and traditional protocol of her aunt, Edith Roosevelt, during the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909), Roosevelt set out on a different course. With her husband’s strong support, despite criticism of them both, she continued with the active business and speaking agenda she had begun before becoming First Lady, in an era when few women had careers. She was the first to hold weekly press conferences and started writing a widely syndicated newspaper column, “My Day” at the urging of her literary agent, George T. Bye.

Eleanor_Roosevelt_with_Madam Chiang Kai-shek Roosevelt maintained a heavy travel schedule over her twelve years in the White House, frequently making personal appearances at labor meetings to assure Depression-era workers that the White House was mindful of their plight. In one widely-circulated cartoon of the time from The New Yorker magazine (June 3, 1933) lampooning the peripatetic First Lady, an astonished coal miner, peering down a dark tunnel, says to a co-worker “For gosh sakes, here comes Mrs. Roosevelt!”

Eleanor also became an important connection for Franklin’s administration to the African-American population during the segregation era. During Franklin’s terms as President, despite Franklin’s need to placate southern sentiment, Eleanor was vocal in her support of the African-American civil rights movement. She was outspoken in her support of Marian Anderson in 1939 when the black singer was denied the use of Washington’s Constitution Hall and was instrumental in the subsequent concert held on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. The first lady also played a role in racial affairs when she appointed Mary McLeod Bethune as head of the Division of Negro Affairs.[21]

One social highlight of the Roosevelt years was the 1939 visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, the first British monarchs to set foot on U.S. soil. The Roosevelts were criticized in some quarters for serving hot dogs to the royal couple during a picnic at Hyde Park.

World War II

In 1941, Roosevelt, Wendell Willkie, and other Americans concerned about threats to democracy established Freedom House. Once the United States entered World War II, she was active on the homefront, co-chairing a national committee on civil defense with New York Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia and frequently visiting civilian and military centers to boost war morale.

Eleanor_Roosevelt_with_Fala_2 In 1943, Roosevelt was sent on a trip to the South Pacific, scene of major battles against the Japanese. The trip became a legend, her fortitude in patiently visiting thousands of wounded servicemen through miles of hospitals causing even the hard-bitten Admiral Halsey, who had opposed her visit initially, to sing her praises. A Republican serviceman insisted to a colleague that he and the other soldiers who’d encountered her warmth would gladly repay any grumbling civilians for whatever gasoline and rubber her visit had cost.

Desirous of improving relations with other countries in the Western Hemisphere, Roosevelt embarked on a whirlwind tour of Latin American countries in March 1944. For the trip, which would cover a number of nations and involve thousands of air miles, she was given a U.S. government-owned C-87A aircraft, the Guess Where II, a VIP transport plane which had originally been built to carry her husband abroad. After reviewing the poor safety record of that aircraft type (many had either caught fire or crashed during the war), the Secret Service forbade the use of the plane for carrying the president, even on trips of short duration, but approved its use for the First Lady.

Eleanor Roosevelt and Chief Anderson Roosevelt flying with Tuskegee
Charles “Chief” Anderson
in March 1941.

Roosevelt especially supported more opportunities for women and African-Americans, notably the Tuskegee Airmen in their successful effort to become the first black combat pilots. She visited the Tuskegee Air Corps Advanced Flying School in Alabama and, at her request, flew with a black student pilot for more than an hour, which had great symbolic value and brought visibility to Tuskegee’s pilot training program. She also arranged a White House meeting in July 1941 for representatives of the Tuskegee flight school to plead their cause for more support from the military establishment in Washington.

Roosevelt was a strong proponent of the Morgenthau Plan to de-industrialize Germany in the postwar period, and was in 1946 one of the few prominent individuals to remain a member of the campaign group lobbying for a harsh peace for Germany.

United Nations

Eleanor_Roosevelt_at_United_Nations Roosevelt speaking at the
United Nations in July 1947.

In 1945, U.S. President Harry S. Truman appointed Roosevelt as a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly. She played an instrumental role, along with René Cassin, John Peters Humphrey and others, in drafting the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Roosevelt served as the first chairperson of the UN Human Rights Commission. On the night of September 28, 1948, Roosevelt spoke on behalf of the Declaration calling it “the international Magna Carta of all mankind” (James 1948). The Declaration was adopted by the UN General Assembly on December 10, 1948. The vote of the General Assembly was unanimous except for eight abstentions, by Muslim countries which took exception to the implications of the Declaration as to freedom in marriage.

Relations with the Catholic Church

In July 1949, Roosevelt had a public disagreement with Francis Joseph Spellman, the Catholic Archbishop of New York, which was characterized as “a battle still remembered for its vehemence and hostility”. In her columns, Roosevelt had attacked proposals for federal funding of certain nonreligious activities at parochial schools, such as bus transportation for students. Spellman cited the Supreme Court’s decision which upheld such provisions, accusing her of anti-Catholicism. Most Democrats rallied behind Roosevelt, and Spellman eventually met with her at her Hyde Park home to quell the dispute. However, Roosevelt maintained her belief that Catholic schools should not receive federal aid, evidently heeding the writings of secularists such as Paul Blanshard. Privately, Roosevelt said that if the Catholic Church got school aid, “Once that is done they control the schools, or at least a great part of them.”

Other Events on this Day
  • In 1804…
    Franklin Pierce, the fourteenth U.S. president, is born in Hillsboro, New Hampshire.
  • In 1863…
    The Battle of Chattanooga, Tennessee, begins, resulting in a critical Union victory.
  • In 1889…
    The first jukebox bebuts at the Palais Royale Saloon in San Francisco.
  • In 1938…
    Eleanor Roosevelt attends the Southern Conference on Human Welfare in Birmingham.
  • In 1945…
    Most World War II food rationing ends in the United States.

Dates and events based on:

William J. Bennett and John Cribb, (2008) The American Patriot’s Almanac Daily Readings on America. (Kindle Edition)

Background information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Eleanor Roosevelt that can be found at…