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Thoughts and Essays that explore the world of Technology, Computers, Photography, History and Family.

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Archive for April, 2010
by Gerald Boerner

  

JerryPhoto_8x8_P1010031 On that day a long time ago, a confrontation between the break-away Confederates attacked the Union fortress off the coast of South Carolina: Fort Sumter. The ensuing battle saw the Confederates overcome the Union forces and take control of the fortification for the rest of the Civil War. This battle started the armed struggle that often pitted one family member against another, with families losing their sons to both sides.

We can be all thankful that Abraham Lincoln was a healer that brought the country back together and ended the institution of slavery. So from the unfortunate beginning at Fort Sumter, we came out of this conflict as a whole nation..  GLB

    

We shall be in one of the bloodiest civil wars that history has recorded.
— Alexander Stephens

“So short lived has been the American Union that men who saw its rise may live to see its fall.”
The London Times

“War consists not only in battles, but in well-considered movements which bring the same results.”
— John C. Fremont

“Army and Navy were like blades of shears — united, invincible; separated, almost useless.”
— Commodore Andrew H. Foote (U.S. Navy)

“You people of the South don’t know what you are doing. This country will be drenched in blood, and God only knows how it will end. It is follu, madness, a crime against civilization!”
— William Tecumseh Sherman

What a change now greets us! The Government is aroused, the dead North is alive, and its divided people united…The cry now is for war, vigorous war, war to the bitter end, and war till the traitors are effectually and permanently put down.
— Frederick Douglass

The firing on that fort will inaugurate a civil war greater than any the world has yet seen… you will lose us every friend at the North. You will wantonly strike a hornet’s nest which extends from mountains to ocean. Legions now quiet will swarm out and sting us to death. It is unnecessary. It puts us in the wrong. It is fatal.
— Robert Toombs

“Abe Linkhorn, We received your proklamation, and as you have put us on very short notis, a few of us boys have conkluded to write you, and ax for a little more time. The fact is, we are most obleeged to have a few more days, for the way things are happening, it is utterly onpossible for us to disperse in twenty days. I tried my darndest yisterday to disperse and retire, but it was no go.”
— Bill Arp

The Start of the Civil War

FortSumter2009 Fort Sumter is a Third System masonry coastal fortification located in Charleston harbor, South Carolina. The fort is best known as the site upon which the shots initiating the American Civil War were fired, at the Battle of Fort Sumter.

Named after General Thomas Sumter, Revolutionary War hero, Fort Sumter was built following the War of 1812, as one of a series of fortifications on the southern U.S. coast. Construction began in 1827, and the structure was still unfinished in 1860, when the conflict began. Seventy thousand tons of granite were imported from New England to build up a sand bar in the entrance to Charleston harbor, which the site dominates. The fort was a five-sided brick structure, 170 to 190 feet (58 m) long, with walls five feet thick, standing 50 feet (15 m) over the low tide mark. It was designed to house 650 men and 135 guns in three tiers of gun emplacements, although it was never filled near its full capacity.

Civil War

William_H_Seward_Abraham_Lincoln_Fort_Sumter Letter from William H. Seward advising
President Lincoln on the obstacles in
reprovisioning Fort Sumter, March 1861

On December 26, 1860, six days after South Carolina declared its secession, U.S. Army Major Robert Anderson abandoned the indefensible Fort Moultrie and secretly relocated companies E and H (127 men, 13 of them musicians) of the 1st U.S. Artillery to Fort Sumter without orders from Washington, on his own initiative. He thought that providing a stronger defense would delay an attack by South Carolina militia. The Fort was not yet complete at the time and fewer than half of the cannons that should have been available were not, due to military downsizing by President James Buchanan. Over the next few months, repeated calls for the United States evacuation of Fort Sumter from the government of South Carolina and later Confederate Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard were ignored. United States attempts to resupply and reinforce the garrison were repulsed on January 9, 1861 when the first shots of the war prevented the steamer Star of the West, a ship hired by the Union to transport troops and supplies to Fort Sumter, from completing the task.

Fort_sumter_1861 1861, inside the fort flying
the Confederate Flag

After realizing that Anderson’s command would run out of food by April 15, 1861, President Lincoln ordered a fleet of ships, under the command of Gustavus V. Fox, to attempt entry into Charleston Harbor and support Fort Sumter. The ships assigned were the steam sloop-of-war USS Pawnee, steam sloop-of-war USS Powhatan, transporting motorized launches and about 300 sailors (secretly removed from the Charleston fleet to join in the forced reinforcement of Fort Pickens, Pensacola, Fla.), armed screw steamer USS Pocahontas, Revenue Cutter USS Harriet Lane, steamer Baltic transporting about 200 troops, composed of companies C and D of the 2nd U.S. Artillery, and three hired tug boats with added protection against small arms fire to be used to tow troop and supply barges directly to Fort Sumter. By April 6, 1861 the first ships began to set sail for their rendezvous off the Charleston Bar. The first to arrive was the Harriet Lane, before midnight of April 11, 1861.

First Battle of Fort Sumter

On April 11, Beauregard sent three aides, Colonel James Chesnut, Jr., Captain Stephen D. Lee, and Lieutenant A. R. Chisolm to demand the surrender of the fort. Anderson declined, and the aides returned to report to Beauregard. After Beauregard had consulted the Secretary of War, Leroy Walker, he sent the aides back to the fort and authorized Chesnut to decide whether the fort should be taken by force. The aides waited for hours while Anderson considered his alternatives and played for time. At about 3 a.m., when Anderson finally announced his conditions, Colonel Chesnut, after conferring with the other aides, decided that they were “manifestly futile [..] and not within the scope of the instructions verbally given to us”. The aides then left the fort and proceeded to the nearby Fort Johnson. There Chesnut ordered the fort to open fire on Fort Sumter.

On April 12, 1861, at 4:30 a.m., Confederate batteries opened fire, firing for 34 straight hours, on the fort. Edmund Ruffin, noted Virginian agronomist and secessionist, claimed that he fired the first shot on Fort Sumter. His story has been widely believed, but Lieutenant Henry S. Farley, commanding a battery of two mortars on James Island fired the first shot at 4:30 A.M. (Detzer 2001, pp. 269–71). The garrison returned fire, but it was ineffective, in part because Major Anderson did not use the guns mounted on the highest tier, the barbette tier, where the gun detachments would be more exposed to Confederate fire. On April 13, the fort was surrendered and evacuated. During the attack, the Union colors fell. Lt. Norman J. Hall risked life and limb to put them back up, burning off his eyebrows permanently.

No Union soldiers died in the actual battle though a Confederate soldier bled to death having been wounded by a misfiring cannon. One Union soldier died and another was mortally wounded during the 47th shot of a 100 shot salute, allowed by the Confederacy. Afterwards the salute was shortened to 50 shots. Accounts, such as in the famous diary of Mary Chesnut, describe Charleston residents along what is now known as The Battery, sitting on balconies and drinking salutes to the start of the hostilities. The Fort Sumter Flag became a popular patriotic symbol after Maj. Anderson returned North with it. The flag is still displayed in the fort’s museum.

Union Siege of Fort Sumter

Union efforts to retake Charleston Harbor began on April 7, 1863, when Rear Admiral Samuel Francis Du Pont, commander of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, led the ironclad frigate New Ironsides, the tower ironclad Keokuk, and the monitors Weehawken, Passaic. Montauk, Patapsco, Nantucket, Catskill, and Nahant in an attack against the harbor’s defenses. The attack was unsuccessful, the New Ironsides never effectively engaged, and the ironclads fired only 154 rounds, while receiving 2,209 from the Confederate defenders (Wise 1994, p. 30). Due to damage received in the attack, the Keokuk sank the next day, 1,400 yards (1,300 m) off the southern tip of Morris Island. Over the next month, working at night to avoid the attention of the Federal squadron, the Confederates salvaged the Keokuk’s two XI-inch Dahlgren guns (Ripley 1984, pp. 93–6). One of the Dahlgren guns was placed in Fort Sumter.

Ft Sumter Drawing Drawing of Fort Sumter.

The Confederates, in the mean time, were strengthening Fort Sumter. A workforce of just under 500 slaves, under the supervision of Confederate army engineers, were filling casemates with sand, protecting the gorge wall with sandbags, and building new traverse, blindages, and bombproofs. Some of Fort Sumter’s artillery had been removed, but 40 pieces still were mounted. Fort Sumter’s heaviest guns were mounted on the barbette, the fort’s highest level, where they had wide angles of fire and could fire down on approaching ships. The barbette was also more exposed to enemy gunfire than the casemates in the two lower levels of the fort.

A special military decoration, known as the Gillmore Medal, was later issued to all Union service members who had performed duty at Fort Sumter under the command of Major-General Quincy Adams Gillmore.

After the devastating bombardment, both General Quincy A. Gillmore and Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren, now commanding the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, determined to launch a boat assault on Fort Sumter for the night of September 8–9, 1863. Cooperation between the Army and Navy were poor, Dahlgren refusing to place his sailors and marines under the command of an army officer. So two flotillas set out towards Fort Sumter that night. The army flotilla was detained off Morris Island by the low tide. By the time they could proceed, the navy assault had already been defeated and the army flotilla returned to shore.

The Navy’s assault involved 400 sailors and marines in 25 boats. The operation was a fiasco from beginning to end. Poor reconnaissance, planning and communication all characterized the operation. Commander Thomas H. Stevens, commanding the monitor Patapsco, was placed in charge of the assault. When Commander Stevens protested that he “knew nothing of [the assault’s] organization “ and “made some remonstrances on this grounds and others.” Dahlgren replied “There is nothing but a corporal’s guard [about 6–10 men] in the fort, and all we have to do is go and take possession.” (Stevens 1902, p. 633). This underestimation of the Confederate forces on Dahlgren’s part may explain why he was hostile to a joint operation wishing to reserve the credit for the victory to the Navy. Less than half of the boats landed. Most of the boats that did land landed on the right flank or right gorge angle, rather than on the gorge where there was a passable breach. The Union sailors and marines who did land could not scale the wall.

The Confederates fired upon the landing party and as well as throwing hand grenades and masonry. The men in the boats that had not landed fired muskets and revolvers blindly at the fort, endangering the landing party more than the garrison. The landing party took shelter in shell holes in the wall of the fort. In response to a signal rocket fired by the garrison, Fort Johnson and the Confederate gunboat Chicora opened fire upon the boats and landing party. The boats that could withdraw withdrew, and the landing party surrendered. The Union casualties were 8 killed, 19 wounded, and 105 captured (including 15 of the wounded). The Confederates did not suffer any casualties in the assault.

Flag-raising_Fort_Sumter_Charleston_Harbor_1865 Flag-raising over Fort Sumter,
14 April 1865

After the unsuccessful boat assault, the bombardment recommenced and proceeded with varying degree of intensity, doing more damage to Fort Sumter until the end of the war. The garrison continued to suffer casualties. The Confederates continued to salvage guns and other material from the ruins and harassed the Union batteries on Morris Island with sharpshooters. The Confederates mounted four 10-inch (250 mm) columbiads, one 8-inch (200 mm) columbiad rifled, and two rifled 42-pounders, in the left face, bottom tier casemates. The Confederacy never surrendered Fort Sumter, but General William T. Sherman’s advance through South Carolina finally forced the Confederates to evacuate Charleston on February 17, 1865 and abandon Fort Sumter. The Federal government formally took possession of Fort Sumter on February 22, 1865 with a flag raising ceremony.

After the War

When the Civil War ended, Fort Sumter was in ruins. The U.S. Army worked to restore it as a useful military installation. The damaged walls were re-leveled to a lower height and partially rebuilt. The third tier of gun emplacements was removed. Eleven of the original first-tier gun rooms were restored with 100-pounder Parrott rifles.

Ft Sumter_GJLee Fort Sumter view from webcam mounted to cupola of
Calhoun Mansion, 5 Dec. 2007

From 1876 to 1897, Fort Sumter was used only as an unmanned lighthouse station. The start of the Spanish-American War prompted renewed interest in its military use and reconstruction commenced on the facilities that had further eroded over time. A new massive concrete blockhouse-style installation was built in 1898 inside the original walls. Named “Battery Huger” in honor of Revolutionary War General Isaac Huger, it never saw combat.

During World War I, a small garrison manned the two twelve-inch (305 mm) rifles at Battery Huger. Until World War II, the fort was unused except as a tourist destination; two 90 mm antiaircraft guns were then installed. Fort Sumter became a U.S. National Monument in 1948.

Other Events on this Day
  • In 1776…
    North Carolina issues the Halifax Resolves, the first act by a colony authorizing its Continental Congress delegates to vote for independence.
  • In 1811…
    Settlers sponsored by John Jacob Astor establish the first American outpost in the Pacific Northwest near present-day Astoria, Oregon.
  • In 1861…
    The Civil War begins at Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina
    .
  • In 1934…
    The strongest wind gust on record, 231 miles per hour, hits Mount Washington, New Hampshire.
  • In 1945…
    Franklin D. Roosevelt dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in Warm Springs, Georgia.
  • In 1981…
    The first manned space shuttle flight begins as Columbia blasts off from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

Dates and events based on:

William J. Bennett and John Cribb, (2008) The American Patriot’s Almanac Daily Readings on America. (Kindle Edition)

Background information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Fort Sumter… 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Sumter

EIRCom.net: Shelby Foote Quotes — The Civil War…
http://homepage.eircom.net/%257Eodyssey/Quotes/History/Shelby_Foote.html

by Gerald Boerner

  

JerryPhoto_8x8_P1010031 Today we continue our examination of the characteristics of the photo paper that you will use in your inkjet printer. Not all inkjet printers will print on all surfaces of media and some types of media require certain types of ink that are only found in specific printers. Thus, we have a situation where the printer, ink and paper must be carefully selected.

Add to this quandary the whole issue of the permanence of the ink used in inkjet printers, we have a very important set of choices that must be made by the photographer when choosing his/her inkjet printing setup. This is the chief reason that many photographers only use their inkjet printers for proofing, not for final images. Professional quality images require the more expensive printers that use the more expensive inks.

Fortunately, for most people, including the casual photographer, the decision is much easier. Most inkjet photo printers are capable of producing adequate output for the photo album, scrapbook and home display photos. It is only when we get into the high-end, fine art printing that we encounter the complication.GLB

    

“It’s called a pen. It’s like a printer, hooked straight to my brain.”
— Dale Dauten

“The darkroom is just the means to an end.”
— Kim Weston

“For me the printing process is part of the magic of photography. It’s that magic that can be exciting, disappointing, rewarding and frustrating all in the same few moments in the darkroom.”
— John Sexton

“I never stopped photographing. There were a couple of years when I didn’t have a darkroom, but that didn’t stop me from photographing.”
— Imogen Cunningham

“When I’m about ready to press the cable release on the View camera, I’ve tried to anticipate some of the challenges I’m going to encounter in the darkroom.”
— John Sexton

“Eventually, if you had a printer that is IPP compliant, that printer will have a Web address and anyone around the world who can get on the Internet can print to that URL.”
— Robert Palmer

“It was amazing to watch him in the darkroom at an advanced age, still get excited when the results were pleasing. He still struggled like we all do in the darkroom and he struggled behind the camera, and when he had a success he was beaming.”
— John Sexton

“I’m pretty selective. I generally edit the contact sheets and then do work prints. Because I have my own lab and printers, I can afford the luxury of going through the contact sheets for black-and-white, making up work prints, seeing them big, and honing them down.”
— Herb Ritts

Note:
This posting is intended for the educational use of photographers and photography students and complies with the “educational fair use” provisions of copyright law. For readers who might wish to reuse some of these images should check out their compliance with copyright limitations that might apply to that use.

GLB

       

Choosing a Photo Printer: Selecting the Best Paper

Canon PIXMA Pro9500 An inkjet printer is a type of computer printer that reproduces a digital image by propelling variably-sized droplets of liquid material (ink) onto a page. Inkjet printers are the most common type of printer and range from small inexpensive consumer models to very large and expensive professional machines.

The concept of inkjet printing dates back to the 19th century and the technology was first developed in the early 1950s. Starting in the late 1970s inkjet printers that could reproduce digital images generated by computers were developed, mainly by Epson, Hewlett-Packard and Canon. In the worldwide consumer market, four manufacturers account for the majority of inkjet printer sales: Canon, Hewlett-Packard, Epson, and Lexmark.

Inkjets—Printing Paper

One of the best sources of information about digital imaging and cameras is found on the Short Courses web site. The ebooks on this site provide a wide variety of great information on topics, including printing paper. Below, I have excerpted a brief summary from one of these books for your convenience. Please check out the full source via the link provided in the Reference section.

Although silver-halide and thermal printers require special papers, inkjets will print on almost any surface. In fact, the way your printed digital images look, and how well they age, depends a great deal on the paper you print them on and how you store them. If you’re just printing copies to hang on the refrigerator door, you’re probably not thinking about this. After a few months, when the pictures have shifted to green, or faded, you’ll just toss them. But there are times when you don’t want to be so casual with your prints. Since it takes time to capture, edit, and print images it’s nice if they last long enough to be enjoyed by generations to come.

coated paper layer

Paper Types

There are four common types of photo-quality inkjet paper: RC, cast coated, and swellable papers usually used with dye inks, and cotton rag fine art papers used with pigment inks.

Coated Papers

  • RC (Resin Coated) Papers…
    These papers are constructed much like silver-halide resin coated paper so they feel like traditional pints. A sheet of paper is sandwiched between layers of plastic and the top layer is coated with a polymer designed to receive the ink. If you put a drop of water on this layer, it is slowly absorbed and dries without leaving ripples in the paper. Images stay glossy because the ink is absorbed by the polymer layer and not the paper base although the water resistance of the top layer varies from brand to brand. These papers have the widest color range (gamut) and can be divided into three sub-categories based on their finish:
  • Glossy Papers…
    These papers, called an F surface, has a very shiny, almost reflective surface.
  • Luster/Satin Papers…
    These papers, called an E surface, has a bumpy repeating surface that varies in depth depending on the manufacturer.
  • Semi-matte Papers…
    These papers, called an N surface, has a luster without any texture.

If you gently bend a corner of an RC paper, you’ll hear a slight cracking sound. You can even bend a print somewhat without creasing it. The paper also resists tears, kinks, and abrasions. An anticurling layer on the back side keeps the print flat, even when it’s humid or large amounts of ink are used on the front side.

Uncoated Papers

  • Porous papers…
    These papers, also called microporous, nanoporous, nanoceramic, microceramic or photobase, often have banners on the package reading "Quick Dry" or "Instant Dry". They have short drying times because they are so absorbent that water in the ink evaporates more quickly. However, their longevity is less than that of other papers. When combined with dye-based inks,these papers are susceptibility to damage from ozone. One way to identify a microporous high-gloss paper is to rub your finger across its surface. It will squeak and prevent your finger from sliding smoothly because the paper is so absorbent it absorbs the tiny traces of oil and moisture on your finger that would otherwise act as a lubricant on a smooth surface.

If you immediately frame one of these prints behind glass, the inside of the glass may fog. This fog, which looks something like a ghost image, is created by ink solvents leaving the paper before it is completely cured. These solvents dry at a slower rate than water so even when a print feels dry, they may not have completely dissipated. This process, called outgassing, occurs with all porous papers because these papers have a barrier that creates brighter, glossier prints by keeping the inks near the surface, but which prevents them from penetrating into the paper where they can dissipate. Other types of papers absorb the inks and do not have this problem. To prevent outgassing, Epson recommends you let a new print sit for 15 minutes, then place a sheet of inexpensive plain uncoated paper on top of it for 24 hours to absorb the solvents and accelerate the outgassing. If you are stacking prints, interleave plain paper between each pair. After 24 hours, if the paper is still wavy, replace the plain paper sheets and let the prints stand for another 24 hours. It also helps if you use proper framing procedures, including preventing contact between the print and the inside of the glass or UV acrylic.

How to Choose the Right Photo Paper?

Let’s start out by considering two main questions. Rick Tunning, in his HubPages posting, addresses these questions in the following ways. Please check out the full article via the link in the Reference section below.

Getting the best prints on your inkjet printer is usually comes determined by selecting the right paper. You’ve probably seen beautiful samples of what the latest photo inkjets can do. Getting those results at home can be difficult, especially if you don’t use a professional grade of photo paper. And by printing your digital photos at home; you keep control over every aspect including color and cropping.

What About the Printer Manufacturer’s Papers?

The big printer companies like Canon, Epson, and Hewlett-Packard, offer their own complete lines of inks and papers. And it’s no surprise each manufacturer claims that you’ll get the best results when you use their paper and ink. They even claim third party products will void your warranty. This is not true!

Their photo printers are typically designed to work by using inks and paper to yield the best results. Using cheap office supply paper with your inkjet printer, may cause the ink to spread too far into the paper before drying, which causes bad colors, lower print resolution, and a dull image.

Which Paper Is Best for Everyday Printing?

The paper offered by your local camera, computer, or office supply store can be fraught with many dangers.

Use the least expensive papers you can buy. They are usually sold for everyday printing "inkjet paper" or just "photo paper." This type of paper is porous and usually lacks a protective polymer coating. It’s very inexpensive, and your prints will dry much more quickly than when you use photo-grade papers.

The downside is the prints will be somewhat dull; the colors won’t look as good; and the inks will fade much quicker; but you’ll pay fraction of the cost of professional paper.

However your photos may last only a few months if they’re left exposed to direct sunlight or contaminants in the air. Of course, if you’re just printing letting the kids print web pages or homework assignments, that won’t matter.

Picking the Perfect Photo Paper

PCWorld, in its Digital Focus blog, extends the above questions in its recent article “Digital Focus: Pick the Perfect Photo Paper”. Check out the full series of posts starting at the link in the Reference section below.

In the old days, printing photos was easy. You’d take a roll of pictures to the corner drug store, and you’d have your prints a few days later. There were disadvantages, of course: You had no control over the color, cropping, or exposure, and the quality of the prints was totally out of your control. But it was easy.

These days, printing your digital photos is a very different experience: You have tons of control. But even after using an image editor to make all the tweaks you need to get an outstanding image, a great printout can still be elusive as that gopher in the movie "Caddy Shack." So what’s the final component to a top-quality print?

Getting great results with your inkjet printer usually comes down to picking the right paper. We’ve all seen gorgeous prints on display at the computer store–samples of what you could accomplish with the newest photo-quality inkjet printers. But getting those same results at home can be difficult if you don’t feed the right paper into your printer. This week, let’s talk about how to choose paper.

Believe the Printer Manufacturer

It’s no secret that the big names in printers–companies like Canon, Epson, and Hewlett-Packard–offer their own complete lines of inks and papers. Each manufacturer claims that you’ll get the best results when you use their products with their printers, and they warn you to steer clear of paper sold by other companies.

And believe it or not, they’re generally right. Photo printers are typically designed to work with specific inks and papers to yield the best results. Using Brand X paper with your particular inkjet printer, for instance, may cause the ink to spread too far into the paper before drying, which causes inaccurate colors, lower print resolution, and a dull finish. In most cases, you really do get the best results by sticking with the inks and papers recommended by your printer’s manufacturer.

Which Paper Is Best?

Once you’ve decided to stick with your printer’s brand of paper, you still have some decisions to make. The paper section at your local camera, computer, or office supply store can be fraught with many seemingly similar choices.

Consider Epson, for instance. The company offers a broad selection of papers with names like DuraBrite, Premium Glossy, Photo Quality Glossy, and ColorLife. But let’s keep it simple. You’ll get the best results when you match the paper to the kind of ink you are using. Epson’s Premium Glossy Photo Paper is the right choice for most Epson printers, but if your printer uses DuraBrite ink, then use DuraBrite Ink Glossy Photo Paper instead. For less formal photo printing–and where print quality and longevity are not the prime factors–you can use Epson’s less-expensive All Purpose Glossy Paper.

Canon has made your choice easier. Just look for the colored stripe that runs down the center of all its paper packages: Papers with a gold stripe are premium blends intended for the highest-quality prints, while bronze identifies the paper as an everyday variety.

HP sells a line of paper called Premium Plus. This is the top-of-the-line photo paper for HP printers. For routine photo printing, you want to print on HP Premium paper–which, HP claims, is slightly better than the kind of paper used by your local photo lab.

Where Do We Go from Here?

To get a a more specific idea of what papers are available, you can check the catalog from your local office supply store, like a Staples or Office Depot, for their selection. Generally these stores only carry their store brand or the papers put out by the major printer manufacturers. These papers will generally work for for your proof prints and snapshots.

For papers used for fine art prints, exhibition prints, or sale, you will probably want to consider some of the more advanced papers. These can be found in the catalogs from photographic supply vendors like Freestyle Photographic Supply. These papers each have their own special characteristics and may cost from $1 to $5 per page, depending on the paper and size. These papers may also require the use of specific high-end printers and special types of ink.

Happy printing…

          

References:

Background and biographical information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Printers (Computing)…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photo_Printer

Wikipedia: Inkjet Printers…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inkjet_printers

Wikipedia: Inkjet Paper…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inkjet_paper

Web Sites and Blogs:

Hub Pages: “How to Choose the Right Photo Paper?”…
http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-Choose-the-Right-Photo-Paper

PCWorld: “Digital Focus: Pick the Perfect Photo Paper”… http://www.pcworld.com/article/121535/
digital_focus_pick_the_perfect_photo_paper.html

Short Courses: “Displaying and Sharing your Photos”…
http://www.shortcourses.com/display/display2-6.html

Brainy Quote: Darkroom Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/justice_3.html

by Gerald Boerner

  

JerryPhoto_8x8_P1010031 We are continuing our examination today with our series of postings that examines the likely nominees for the Supreme Court vacancy that will result from the retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens in June. Interestingly, most of the leading candidates are women, and women of extensive legal experience. We will be interested to see whether the expediency of getting the nominee confirmed will overshadow the selection of the most prepared, most experienced, and most appropriate person for that position.GLB

    

“Peace and justice are two sides of the same coin.”
— Dwight D. Eisenhower

“Charity is no substitute for justice withheld.”
— Saint Augustine

“Justice is a certain rectitude of mind whereby a man does what he ought to do in the circumstances confronting him.”
— Saint Thomas Aquinas

“In the absence of justice, what is sovereignty but organized robbery?”
— Saint Augustine

“Family life is too intimate to be preserved by the spirit of justice. It can be sustained by a spirit of love which goes beyond justice.”
— Reinhold Niebuhr

“There are matters in the Bible, said to be done by the express commandment of God, that are shocking to humanity and to every idea we have of moral justice.”
— Thomas Paine

“Though force can protect in emergency, only justice, fairness, consideration and cooperation can finally lead men to the dawn of eternal peace.”
— Dwight D. Eisenhower

“Where justice is denied, where poverty is enforced, where ignorance prevails, and where any one class is made to feel that society is an organized conspiracy to oppress, rob and degrade them, neither persons nor property will be safe.”
— Frederick Douglass

  

Supreme Court Candidates: Elena Kagan

Official_portrait_of_Barack_Obama President Barack Obama has made one appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States, that of Judge Sonia Sotomayor to fill the vacancy created by the retirement of Associate Justice David H. Souter. Sotomayor was confirmed by the United States Senate on August 6, 2009. He will additionally have the opportunity to fill the vacancy created by John Paul Stevens, who has announced his intention to retire at the end of the court’s term in June 2010. Speculation has also focused on the potential retirement of 77-year-old Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who has been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

Court demographics

Demographic considerations have played into the appointment of Supreme Court justices since the institution was established. Starting in the twentieth century, these concerns shifted from geographic representation to issues of gender and ethnicity.

Prior to the 2008 presidential election, many court watchers suggested that the next president would be under significant pressure to appoint another woman or ethnic minority to the court. The case for naming more women was particularly widespread given the recent retirement of Sandra Day O’Connor and the rapidly changing demographics of the legal community, with women now accounting for about a fifth of all law partners and law school deans, a quarter of the federal bench, and nearly half of all law school graduates. Shortly before the election, for example, NPR reported, "Most observers of the Supreme Court agree about one thing: The next nominee is likely to be a woman". Furthermore, after Obama’s presidential election victory, Hispanic legal interests groups such as the Hispanic National Bar Association began urging Obama to nominate a Hispanic justice.

Given the relative youth of the most recent Republican appointments, it was also noted that Democrats had, "a strong incentive to pick younger justices this time around". Age proved to be an important consideration for Obama, who was "looking for a justice who will be an intellectual force on the court for many years to come". As a result, Obama did not seriously consider candidates such as Jose Cabranes, Amalya Kearse, Diana Gribbon Motz, David Tatel, and Laurence Tribe, all of whom he respected but were older than 65 when Obama was looking to replace David Souter.

Introducing Elena Kagan

Diane_Wood_in_2008

Diane Pamela Wood (Born: 1950) is a federal judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, and a Senior Lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School.

Wood was born in Plainfield, New Jersey. When she was young, she moved with her family to Texas, where her mother still lives. Wood graduated with a B.A. from the University of Texas at Austin’s Plan II Honors program in 1971. She earned her J.D. from the University of Texas School of Law in 1975, where she was an editor of the Texas Law Review, graduated with high honors and Order of the Coif, and was among the first women at the University of Texas admitted as a member of the Friar Society. Wood then clerked for Judge Irving Goldberg of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals from 1975 to 1976 and for Associate Justice Harry Blackmun of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1976 to 1977. She was among the first women to clerk at the Supreme Court.

After working in private practice and the Executive Branch, Wood became the third woman ever hired as a law professor at the University of Chicago Law School. Wood was nominated to the Seventh Circuit by President Bill Clinton on March 31, 1995. She was confirmed unanimously by the United States Senate and received her commission on June 30, 1995. Neil A. Lewis has called Wood an “unflinching and spirited intellectual counterweight" to the Seventh Circuit’s Richard Posner and Frank Easterbrook.

Recently, many commentators have called Wood a leading candidate for nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court by President Barack Obama. She was a candidate to replace Justice David Souter when he retired, though that seat went to Sonia Sotomayor, and she has another chance to be named now that Justice John Paul Stevens has decided to retire in summer 2010.

College and Law School

Wood went on to the University of Texas at Austin, in the Plan II Honors program. In May 1971, after three years of study, Wood earned a B.A. with highest honors and special honors in English. At the time, she intended to go on to graduate studies in comparative literature. However, she decided to go to law school instead, and enrolled in the University of Texas School of Law in 1972. During law school, Wood was an editor of the Texas Law Review and a member of the Women’s Legal Caucus. Wood earned her J.D. from the University of Texas School of Law in 1975, graduating at the top of her class with high honors and Order of the Coif.

Professional Career

Wood clerked for Judge Irving Goldberg of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals from 1975 to 1976 and for Associate Justice Harry Blackmun of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1976 to 1977. Wood was one of the first women to serve as a law clerk for a Supreme Court Justice. After clerking at the Supreme Court, Wood was an attorney-advisor for the Office of the Legal Adviser of the U.S. Department of State from 1977 to 1978. From 1978 to 1980, she practiced at the law firm Covington & Burling in Washington, D.C.

Wood began her teaching career as an assistant professor of law at Georgetown University from 1980 to 1981. In 1981, Wood settled in Chicago and joined the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School. She was the third woman ever hired as a law professor at the University of Chicago and the only woman on the faculty when she began in 1981. Wood served as Professor of Law from 1989-1992, Associate Dean from 1990-1995, and (as the first woman to be honored with a named chair) the Harold J. and Marion F. Green Professor of International Legal Studies from 1992-1995. Since her appointment to the Seventh Circuit, Wood has continued to teach at the University of Chicago Law School as a Senior Lecturer in Law, along with fellow Seventh Circuit judges Frank Easterbrook and Richard Posner.

Wood was a special assistant to the Assistant Attorney General at the U.S. Department of Justice from 1985 to 1987. From 1993 to 1995, she served as Deputy Assistant Attorney General for international, appellate, and policy in the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice.

Wood holds memberships in the American Law Institute and the American Society of International Law. She is also a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and serves on its Midwest Council. In the past, she was also a member of the American Bar Association. She has served on the governing councils of the ABA’s Section of Antitrust Law and its Section of International Law and Practice. Wood has pursued various law reform projects through the American Bar Association and the Brookings Institution Project on Civil Justice Reform. She was also instrumental in developing the University of Chicago’s first policy on sexual harassment.

Federal Judicial Service

Wood was nominated by President Bill Clinton on March 31, 1995, to a seat vacated when William Joseph Bauer took senior status. She was confirmed unanimously by the United States Senate and received her commission on June 30, 1995. Wood became the second woman ever to sit on the Seventh Circuit. On the bench, Wood is known for building consensus on the court and rallying other judges around her positions.

Wood is considered a likely candidate for the U.S. Supreme Court in the event President Obama was given the opportunity to appoint someone to the bench. The speculation intensified after Justice David Souter’s retirement announcement, and Wood was the first candidate interviewed for the post by President Obama, who met with her at the White House while she was visiting from Chicago.

Noteworthy Rulings

Among her more important rulings from the bench are:

  • Walker v. O’Brien, 216 F.3d 626 (7th Cir. 2000):
    Wood, writing for the panel, held that the requirements of the Prison Litigation Reform Act do not apply to properly characterized habeas corpus actions because those actions are not “civil actions” within the meaning of the Act.
  • Fornalik v. Perryman, 223 F.3d 523 (7th Cir. 2000):
    Wood, writing for the panel, held that an Immigration and Naturalization Service district office order putting a minor alien in deferred status pending an application to proceed as an abused child of a visa recipient under the Violence Against Women Act took precedence over an earlier removal order issued by another INS district office.
  • Goldwasser v. Ameritech Corp., 222 F.3d 390 (7th Cir. 2000):
    Wood, writing for the panel, held that a violation of the 1996 Telecommunications Act was not sufficient to state a claim under general antitrust laws.
  • Illinois ex rel. Ryan v. Brown, 227 F.3d 1042 (7th Cir. 2000):
    Wood, writing for the panel, held that the State of Illinois itself, rather than taxpayer plaintiffs, was the correct party to sue under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) to recover losses stemming from a corrupt loan to public official.
  • Solid Waste Agency v. United States Army Corps of Engineers, 191 F.3d 845 (1999):
    Wood, writing for the panel, held that the decision to regulate isolated waters based on their actual use as a habitat by migratory birds was within Congress’ power under the Commerce Clause. The Supreme Court reversed. 531 U.S. 159 (2001).
  • National Organization for Women v. Scheidler, 267 F.3d 687 (7th Cir. 2001):
    Wood, writing for the panel, held that the district court did not err in concluding that the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act authorized private plaintiffs to seek injunctive relief. In addition, the court recognized the First Amendment protected the rights of abortion protesters but held that the injunction issued by the district court, which prohibited violent conduct by protesters, struck a proper balance and avoided any risk of curtailing activities protected by the First Amendment. The Supreme Court reversed. 537 U.S. 393 (2003). Many have misinterpreted the decision as one primarily concerned with the rights of abortion protesters, but Supreme Court commentators clarify, "Wood’s opinion was a judgment primarily about injunctive relief and the breadth of the racketeering statute, not on the right to provide an abortion or to protest."
  • St. John’s United Church of Christ v. City of Chicago, 502 F.3d 616 (7th Cir. 2007):
    Wood, writing for the majority, held that the O’Hare Modernization Act’s amendment of the Illinois Religious Freedom Restoration Act did not violate the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment because it was a law of general applicability that did not target the plaintiff Church.
  • United States v. Warner & Ryan, 498 F.3d 666 (7th Cir. 2007):
    Wood, writing for the majority, affirmed the convictions on various criminal charges of former Illinois Governor George Ryan and his associate Lawrence E. Warner.
  • Bloch v. Frischholz, 533 F.3d 562 (7th Cir. 2008) (in dissent):
    The majority of a panel of the Seventh Circuit held that a condominium associate could prohibit residents from putting objects on their doors without violating the Fair Housing Act. The result was that Jewish residents could not put mezuzot on their doorposts. Dissenting, Wood argued plaintiffs had established a claim for intentional religious discrimination under the Fair Housing Act because there was sufficient evidence in the record to conclude that the rule was being applied in a way that would constitute a constructive eviction of observant Jews. The en banc Seventh Circuit reheard the case and unanimously reversed the panel majority in Bloch v. Frischholz, 587 F.3d 771 (7th Cir. 2009), siding with Judge Wood’s position. Observers have recognized that Wood was able to rally the whole court around a position protective of religious freedom and practice.
  • Germano v. International Profit Association, 544 F.3d 798 (7th Cir. 2008):
    Wood, writing for the panel, held that statements transmitted by deaf individuals using a communications assistant in a telecommunications relay service conversation are not hearsay.
  • Bayo v. Napolitano, No. 07-1069 (7th Cir. Jan. 20, 2010) (en banc):
    Wood, writing for the unanimous en banc court, held that an alien fraudulently entering the United States under the Visa Waiver Program (VWP) must be held to the terms of the VWP waiver; that a waiver of procedural rights under the VWP must be knowingly and voluntarily made; and that an alien who entered under the VWP has an independent right to adjust status based on marriage to a United States citizen only during the 90-day VWP window of authorized presence in the United States.

A Perspective

The Huffington Post recently posted an article on Diane Wood and her status in the nomination competition for a Supreme Court nomination. Check out the full article from the link in the Reference section below.

wood-diane-2-sm Diane Wood, a 14-year veteran of the Chicago 7th Circuit Court of Appeals, was an early name tossed into the ring as a possible Obama Supreme Court nominee to replace retiring David Souter.

Wood received her bachelor’s degree from the University of Texas at Austin in 1971, where she also earned her J.D. in 1975. She later clerked for Judge Irving Goldberg of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals from 1975 to 1976 and for Associate Justice Harry Blackmun of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1976 to 1977.

Wood worked as an attorney for the State Department in the late ’70s and later served as a special assistant to the assistant Attorney General at the U.S. Department of Justice from 1985 to 1987.

She has made a reputation as a strong liberal voice on an otherwise conservative bench and her name was decidedly in the mix when speculation first arose that Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg would retire due to medical issues. The one downside: her position on abortion rights has already sparked the ire of conservatives and pro-life groups, portending a potentially contentious confirmation process.

     

References:

Background and biographical information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Diane Wood… 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elena_Kagan

Wikipedia: Barak Obama Supreme Court Candidates
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama_Supreme_Court_candidates

Other Web Sites:

The Huffington Post: “Diane Wood. Supreme Court Nominee? All You Need to Know”…
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/05/01/diane-wood-supreme-court_n_194543.html

Brainy Quote: Justice Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/justice.html

by Gerald Boerner

  

JerryPhoto_8x8_P1010031 We all celebrated when the Apollo 11 astronauts landed and walked on the moon. I remember where I was, do you? I watched the proceedings attentively on TV and marveled at the amazing feat that they accomplished. Two missions later, the most memorable thing that most of us recall are the words: “Houston, we’ve got a problem”…

The mission and its astronauts were in danger. Mission control managed to relay a band aid fix that scrubbed the activities of the mission and the Apollo 13 returned to earth safely. But the successful missions of the space program had to face one more problem; but life goes on.  GLB

    

“Apollo Records signed me for my gospel ability.”
— Solomon Burke

“At this point in my career, Apollo 13 is a million light years away.”
— Kathleen Quinlan

“He who commands an Apollo flight will not command a second one.”
— Wally Schirra

“Every human being has within him an ideal man, just as every piece of marble contains in a rough state a statue as beautiful as the one that Praxiteles the Greek made of the god Apollo.”
— Jose Marti

“In Congress, I am a strong supporter of the New Apollo Energy Act. This plan would help to establish our energy independence, create jobs, and provide cleaner, reliable, and more affordable energy.”
— Allyson Schwartz

“I think I was very interested in the space program as a kid, watching the first Apollo missions to the moon, and it’s something I thought that would be a lot of, of fun and exciting and a very worthwhile job.”
— Mark Kelly

“I grew up watching a lot of the coverage of the early U.S. space program, all the way back starting with Mercury and then through Gemini and Apollo and of course going to the moon as the main part of the Apollo program.”
— Linda M. Godwin

“Apollo 13, as you may remember, gave us a reactor that is bubbling away right now somewhere in the Pacific. It’s supposed to be bubbling away on the moon, but it’s in the Pacific Ocean instead.”
— David R. Brower

Apollo 13

Apollo_13-insignia Apollo 13 was the third Apollo mission intended to land on the Moon, but a mid-mission oxygen tank rupture caused sufficient damage to force the lunar landing to be aborted. The flight was commanded by James A. Lovell, with John L. “Jack” Swigert command module pilot, and Fred W. Haise lunar module pilot.

The mission launched on April 11, 1970 at 13:13 CST. Two days later, en route to the Moon, a fault in the electrical system of one of the Service Module’s oxygen tanks produced an overpressure rupture which caused a loss of electrical power and failure of both oxygen tanks. The Command Module remained functional on its own batteries and oxygen tank, which were only designed to support the vehicle during the last hours of flight. The crew shut down the Command Module and used the Lunar Module as a “lifeboat” during the return trip to earth.

Despite great hardship caused by limited power, loss of cabin heat, shortage of potable water, and the critical need to jury-rig the carbon dioxide removal system, the crew returned safely to Earth on April 17, and the mission was termed a “successful failure”. A misquotation of the radio transmission made by Swigert and repeated by Lovell (“…Houston, we’ve had a problem…”) has become widely quoted in popular culture as “Houston, we have a problem.”

Mission Highlights

Apollo_13_liftoff-KSC-70PC-160HR Apollo 13 launches from
Kennedy Space Center,
April 11, 1970.

The Apollo 13 mission was to explore the Fra Mauro formation, or Fra Mauro highlands, named after the 80-kilometer-diameter Fra Mauro crater located within it. It is a widespread, hilly geological (or selenological) area thought to be composed of ejecta from the impact that formed Mare Imbrium. The cost of the mission was $4.4 billion. The next Apollo mission, Apollo 14, eventually made a successful flight to Fra Mauro.

The mission began with a little-known malfunction: during the second-stage boost, the center (inboard) engine shut down two minutes early. The four outboard engines burned longer to compensate, and the vehicle continued to a successful orbit. The shutdown was determined to be due to dangerous pogo oscillations that might have torn the second stage apart. The engine experienced 68g vibrations at 16 hertz, flexing the thrust frame by 3 inches (76 mm).[8] The engine shutdown was triggered by sensed thrust chamber pressure fluctuations. Smaller pogo oscillations had been seen on previous Titan and Saturn flights (notably Apollo 6), but on Apollo 13 they were amplified by an unexpected interaction with turbopump cavitation. Later missions implemented anti-pogo modifications that had been under development. These included addition of a helium gas reservoir to the center engine liquid oxygen line to dampen pressure oscillations, an automatic cutoff as a backup, and simplification of the propellant valves of all five second-stage engines.

Oxygen Tank Rupture

 

Apollo13_-_SM_after_separation Apollo 13′s damaged Service Module, as photographed from the Command Module after being jettisoned.

En route to the moon, 321,860 kilometers (199,990 mi) from Earth, the number two oxygen tank, one of two in the Service Module (SM), ruptured. Mission Control had asked the crew to stir the hydrogen and oxygen tanks, destratifying the contents and increasing the accuracy of their quantity readings. Damaged Teflon insulation on the wires to the stirrer motor in oxygen tank 2 allowed them to short and ignite the insulation. The resulting fire rapidly increased pressure beyond its nominal 1,000 psi (7 MPa) limit and either the tank or the tank dome failed. The cause was unknown at the time and the crew initially thought that a meteoroid might have struck the Lunar Module (LM).

The failure also damaged either the number one oxygen tank or its plumbing. Its contents leaked out over the next several hours, entirely depleting the SM supply. Because the service module fuel cells combined hydrogen and oxygen to generate electricity and water, they shut down and left the command module (CM) on limited battery power. The crew was forced to shut down the CM completely and to use the LM, still attached to the Command/Service Module (CSM), as a “lifeboat”. This had been suggested during an earlier training simulation but had not been considered a likely scenario. Without the LM, the accident would certainly have been fatal.

Apollo_13_LM_with_Mailbox_retouched Interior of the Lunar Module, showing the “mailbox” built
to adapt the
Command Module‘s lithium hydroxide canisters
(designed to reduce build-up of
carbon dioxide) to fit the
LM’s environmental systems as most of the LM’s supply
of canisters were stored outside the cabin where they
would ordinarily be retrieved during EVA.

The damage to the service module made safe return from a lunar landing impossible. With Mission Control’s decision to fly a circumlunar abort, the moon’s gravity was used to return the ship to Earth. Apollo 13 had initially been on a free return trajectory that would have automatically resulted in a return to Earth with no additional engine firings, but the planned lunar landing at Fra Mauro required leaving the free return trajectory early in the mission. Returning to the free return trajectory required a significant change that would have been a small burn with the SM Service Propulsion System engine, but the condition of the engine was unknown. After extensive discussion, the return to a free return trajectory was performed with the LM descent propulsion system within hours of the accident. The descent engine was fired again two hours after pericynthion (closest approach to the moon) for a PC+2 burn to speed the return. One more descent engine burn was later required for a minor course correction.

Considerable ingenuity under extreme pressure was required from the crew, flight controllers and support personnel for the safe return. The developing drama was shown on television. Because electrical power was severely limited, no more live TV broadcasts were made; TV commentators used models and animated footage as illustrations. Low power levels made even voice communications difficult.

The LM “lifeboat” consumables were intended only to sustain two people for two days, not three people for four days. Oxygen was the least critical consumable because the LM carried enough to repressurize the LM after each surface EVA. Unlike the CSM, which was powered by fuel cells that produced water as a byproduct, the LM was powered by silver-zinc batteries so electrical power and especially water were critical consumables. To keep the LM life support and communication systems operational until re-entry, the LM was powered down to the lowest levels possible.

Another serious limitation was lithium hydroxide (LiOH) for removing carbon dioxide. The LM’s internal stock of LiOH canisters was not sufficient to support the crew until return, and the remainder was stored in the descent stage, out of reach. The CM had an adequate supply of canisters, but these were incompatible with the LM. Ground controllers improvised a way to join the cube-shaped CM canisters to the LM’s circular canister-sockets by drawing air through them with a suit return hose. The astronauts called the jury-rigged device “the mailbox.”

The thermal design of the spacecraft assumed normal operating power levels, so the survival power level caused internal temperatures to drop considerably. Water condensed in the CM, causing concern that this might damage electrical systems when it was reactivated. This turned out not to be a problem, partly because of the extensive CM safeguards instituted after the Apollo 1 fire.

As Apollo 13 neared Earth, the crew first jettisoned the Service Module so pictures could be taken for later analysis. The crew reported that the Sector 3 panel enclosing the fuel cells, hydrogen, and oxygen tanks was missing for the entire length of the SM.

After jettisoning the lunar module Aquarius, command module Odyssey splashed down safely in the Pacific. The crew was in good condition except for Haise who was suffering from a serious urinary tract infection because of insufficient water intake. To avoid altering the trajectory of the spacecraft, the crew had been instructed to temporarily stop urine dumps. A misunderstanding prompted the crew to store all urine for the rest of the flight.

Cause of the accident

Apollo_13_crew_postmission_onboard_USS_Iwo_Jima The crew of Apollo 13 onboard the
USS Iwo Jima following splashdown

The tank rupture on Apollo 13 led to a lengthy investigation which, based on detailed manufacturing records and logs, determined the cause of the tank failure an unlikely chain of events. Tanks storing cryogens, such as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen, require either venting, extremely good insulation, or both, in order to avoid excessive pressure buildup due to vaporization. The Service Module oxygen tanks were so well insulated that they could safely contain supercritical hydrogen and oxygen for years. Each oxygen tank held several hundred pounds of oxygen, which was used for breathable air and the production of electricity and water. However, the construction of the tank made internal inspection of the tank impossible.

The tank contained several components relevant to the accident:

  • a quantity sensor;
  • a fan to stir the tank contents for more accurate quantity measurements;
  • a heater to vaporize liquid oxygen as needed;
  • a thermostat to protect the heater;
  • a temperature sensor;
  • fill and drain valves and piping.

The heater and protection thermostat were originally designed for the command module’s 28-volt DC bus. The specifications for the heater and thermostat were later changed to allow a 65-volt ground supply, in order to pressurize the tanks more rapidly. Beechcraft, the tank subcontractor, did not upgrade the thermostat to handle the higher voltage. The temperature sensor could not read above the highest operational temperature of the heater, which was approximately 100 °F (38 °C). This was not normally a problem because the thermostat was designed to open at 80 °F (27 °C).

The oxygen shelf carrying the oxygen tanks was originally installed in the Apollo 10 service module, but was removed to fix a potential electromagnetic interference problem. During removal, the shelf was accidentally dropped about 2 inches (5 cm) because a retaining bolt had not been removed. The tank appeared to be undamaged, but a loosely-fitting filling tube was apparently damaged, and photographs suggested that the close-out cap on the top of the tank may have hit the fuel cell shelf. The report of the Apollo 13 review board considers the probability of tank damage during this incident to be “rather low”.

After the tank was filled for ground testing, it could not be emptied through the normal drain line. To avoid delaying the mission by replacing the tank, the heater was connected to 65-volt ground power to boil-off the oxygen. Lovell signed off on this procedure. It should have taken a few days at the thermostatic opening temperature of 80 °F (27 °C). However, when the thermostat opened, the 65-volt supply fused its contacts closed and the heater remained powered.

This raised the temperature of the heater to an estimated 1,000 °F (540 °C). A chart recorder on the heater current showed that the heater was not cycling on and off, as it should have been if the thermostat was functioning correctly, but no one noticed it at the time. Because the temperature sensor could not read higher than 100 °F (38 °C), the monitoring equipment did not register the true temperature inside the tank. The gas evaporated in hours rather than days.

The sustained high temperatures melted the Teflon insulation on the fan power supply wires and left them exposed. When the tank was refilled with oxygen, it became a bomb waiting to go off. During the “cryo stir” procedure, fan power passed through the bare wires which apparently shorted, producing sparks and igniting the Teflon. This in turn boiled liquid oxygen faster than the tank vent could remove it.

The other oxygen tank or its piping, located near the failed tank, was damaged, allowing it to leak also. Design fixes included moving the tanks farther apart, and removing the stirring fans. This required adding a third tank, so that no tank would go below half full. An emergency battery was also added to another sector in the service module.

Popular culture

The 1974 movie Houston, We’ve Got a Problem, while set around the Apollo 13 incident, is a fictional drama about the crises faced by ground personnel, when the emergency disrupts their work schedules and places additional stress on their lives; only a couple of news clips and a narrator’s solemn voice deal with the actual problems.

Apollo 13, a film based on Lost Moon, Jim Lovell’s and Jeffrey Kluger’s book about the event, was released in 1995. It was directed by Ron Howard and starred Tom Hanks as Jim Lovell, Bill Paxton as Fred Haise, Kevin Bacon as Jack Swigert, Ed Harris as flight director Gene Kranz, Kathleen Quinlan as Marilyn Lovell and Gary Sinise as Ken Mattingly. Jim Lovell, Gene Kranz, and other principals have stated that this film depicted the events of the mission with reasonable accuracy, though some dramatic license was taken. Technical inaccuracies have also been noted. The film is among several to misquote Swigert’s famous statement, “Houston, we’ve had a problem”. However, the filmmakers purposely changed the line because the original quote made it seem that the problem had already passed. The film was a critical and box office success, and was nominated for several Academy Awards including Best Picture, Best Supporting Actor (Harris) and Best Supporting Actress (Quinlan). The film engendered new interest in the history of the Apollo program and American space flight in general.

Portions of the events surrounding the Apollo 13 mission are dramatized in episode “We Interrupt This Program” of the 1998 miniseries From the Earth to the Moon, co-produced by Ron Howard and Tom Hanks. The story is presented from the perspective of television reporters competing for coverage of the mission.

In 2008, an interactive theatrical show titled APOLLO 13: Mission Control premiered at BATS Theatre in Wellington, New Zealand. The production faithfully recreated the mission control consoles and audience members became part of the storyline. The show also featured a ‘guest’ astronaut each night – a member of the public who suited up and amongst other duties, stirred the oxygen tanks and said the line “Houston, we’ve had a problem”. This ‘replacement’ astronaut was a nod to Jack Swigert, who replaced Ken Mattingly shortly before the actual launch in 1970. The production toured to other cities in New Zealand in 2009 and an Australian tour is scheduled for 2010-2011.

References

Other Events on this Day:

  • In 1945…
    American troops liberate the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany.
  • In 1947…
    Jackie Robinson becomes the first black baseball player in the major leagues when he plays an exhibition game as a Brooklyn Dodger.
  • In 1951…
    President Truman relieves General Douglas MacArthur of command for publicity criticizing his Korean War policy.

Dates and events based on:

William J. Bennett and John Cribb, (2008) The American Patriot’s Almanac Daily Readings on America. (Kindle Edition)

Background information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Apollo 13… 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_13

Brainy Quote: Apollo Quotes… 
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/apollo.html

by Gerald Boerner

  

JerryPhoto_8x8_P1010031 Today we start our examination of the characteristics of the photo paper that you will use in your inkjet printer. Not all inkjet printers will print on all surfaces of media and some types of media require certain types of ink that are only found in specific printers. Thus, we have a situation where the printer, ink and paper must be carefully selected.

Add to this quandary the whole issue of the permanence of the ink used in inkjet printers, we have a very important set of choices that must be made by the photographer when choosing his/her inkjet printing setup. This is the chief reason that many photographers only use their inkjet printers for proofing, not for final images. Professional quality images require the more expensive printers that use the more expensive inks.

Fortunately, for most people, including the casual photographer, the decision is much easier. Most inkjet photo printers are capable of producing adequate output for the photo album, scrapbook and home display photos. It is only when we get into the high-end, fine art printing that we encounter the complication.GLB

    

“It’s called a pen. It’s like a printer, hooked straight to my brain.”
— Dale Dauten

“The darkroom is just the means to an end.”
— Kim Weston

“For me the printing process is part of the magic of photography. It’s that magic that can be exciting, disappointing, rewarding and frustrating all in the same few moments in the darkroom.”
— John Sexton

“I never stopped photographing. There were a couple of years when I didn’t have a darkroom, but that didn’t stop me from photographing.”
— Imogen Cunningham

“When I’m about ready to press the cable release on the View camera, I’ve tried to anticipate some of the challenges I’m going to encounter in the darkroom.”
— John Sexton

“Eventually, if you had a printer that is IPP compliant, that printer will have a Web address and anyone around the world who can get on the Internet can print to that URL.”
— Robert Palmer

“It was amazing to watch him in the darkroom at an advanced age, still get excited when the results were pleasing. He still struggled like we all do in the darkroom and he struggled behind the camera, and when he had a success he was beaming.”
— John Sexton

“I’m pretty selective. I generally edit the contact sheets and then do work prints. Because I have my own lab and printers, I can afford the luxury of going through the contact sheets for black-and-white, making up work prints, seeing them big, and honing them down.”
— Herb Ritts

    

Note:
This posting is intended for the educational use of photographers and photography students and complies with the “educational fair use” provisions of copyright law. For readers who might wish to reuse some of these images should check out their compliance with copyright limitations that might apply to that use.

GLB

  

Choosing a Photo Printer: Characteristics of Paper

Epson 7880 Printer An inkjet printer is a type of computer printer that reproduces a digital image by propelling variably-sized droplets of liquid material (ink) onto a page. Inkjet printers are the most common type of printer and range from small inexpensive consumer models to very large and expensive professional machines.

The concept of inkjet printing dates back to the 19th century and the technology was first developed in the early 1950s. Starting in the late 1970s inkjet printers that could reproduce digital images generated by computers were developed, mainly by Epson, Hewlett-Packard and Canon. In the worldwide consumer market, four manufacturers account for the majority of inkjet printer sales: Canon, Hewlett-Packard, Epson, and Lexmark.

Key Issue: Preservation of the Print

Preservation of document, pictures, recordings, digital content, etc., is a major aspect of archival science. It is also an important consideration for people who are creating time capsules, family history, historical documents, scrapbooks and family trees. Common storage media are not permanent, and there are few reliable methods of preserving documents and pictures for the future.

Paper/prints (photos)…
Color negatives and ordinary color prints may fade away to nothing in a relatively short period if not stored and handled properly. This happens even if the negatives and prints are kept in the dark because the ambient light is not the determining factor, but heat and humidity are. Because color processing results in a less stable image than traditional black-and-white processing, black and white pictures from the 1920s are more likely to survive into the long term future than those color films and photographs from the last 20 or 30 years. The cause of the color degradation is the result of the dyes used in the color processes.

Color prints made on most inkjet printers look very good at first but they have a very short lifespan, measured in months rather than in years. Even prints from commercial photo labs will start to fade in a matter of years if not processed properly and stored in cool, dry environments.

Black and white photographic films using silver halide emulsions are the only film types that have proven to last for archival storage. The determining factors for longevity include the film base type, proper processing (develop, stop, fix and wash) and proper storage. Early films were coated onto a nitrate base material which was prone to combustion if stored in uncontrolled temperatures, Nitrate was replaced with acetate-base films. The acetate films have now been discovered to outgass acids (also referred to as vinegar syndrome). Acetate films were replaced in the early 1980s by polyester film base materials which have been determined to be more stable that nitrate and acetate base films.

Inkjet Paper

Inkjet paper is a special fine paper designed for inkjet printers, typically classified by its weight, brightness and smoothness, and sometimes by its opacity.

Inkjet paper is made from high quality deinked pulp or chemical pulps and requires good dimensional stability, no curling or cockling, good surface strength, and surface smoothness. Sufficient and even porosity is required to counteract spreading of the ink. For lower quality printing, uncoated copy paper will suffice, but higher grades require coating. The traditional coatings are not widely used for inkjet papers. For matte inkjet papers, it is common to use silica as pigment together with polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). Glossy inkjet papers can be made by multicoating, resin coating, or cast coating on a lamination paper.

Comparison to Standard Office Paper

Cheap_plotter_paper_soaked_with_ink_belt_pattern Example cheap uncoated paper
heavily soaked with ink, showing the
back of the paper. The moisture-soaked
fibers swell and revert to their original
shape, showing the mesh belt webbing
used in the paper manufacturing plant.

Standard office paper has traditionally been designed for use with typewriters and copy machines, where the paper usually does not get wet. With these types of paper, moisture tends to wick through the fibers away from the point of contact to form a disk. For an inkjet paper, this spreading results in the ink spreading out in the fibers to form a large smudge, and which lacks pigment intensity.

High-quality inkjet printing with dark, crisp lines requires the paper to have exactly the right degree of absorbency to accept the ink but prevent its sideways spread. Many general-purpose office papers of weights around 21 to 27 lb (80–100 g/m²) have been reformulated so that they can be used equally well with both inkjet and laser printers. However, this category of paper is only suitable for printing text, because the ink load is light.

When paper is manufactured, it is formed from a fiber mat that collects on an open mesh screen, which is then dried and pressed flat and smooth. Large areas of inkjet color, such as found in graphics and photographs, soak the paper fibers with so much moisture that they swell and return to their original shape from before pressing, resulting in a wavy buckling of the paper surface.

Double-sided inkjet printing is usually not possible with inexpensive low-weight copy paper because of bleed-through from one side to the other. Heavier weight paper works better due to the thickness of the fibers limiting bleed-through.

These papers are also unsuitable for photographic work because standard office paper is usually not "white" enough. This results in a poor color gamut and leads to colors being described as "muddy".

For all types of paper, the settings in the printer driver must be adjusted to suit the paper, so that the right amount of ink is delivered.

Inkjet Photo Paper

Photo paper is a category of inkjet paper designed specifically for reproduction of photographs, which is extremely bright white due to bleaching or substances such as titanium dioxide, and has been coated with a highly absorbent material that limits diffusion of the ink away from the point of contact. Highly refined clay is a common coating to prevent ink spread.

The best of these papers, with suitable pigment-based ink systems, can match or exceed the image quality and longevity of photographic gelatin-based silver halide continuous tone printing methods used for color photographs, such as Fuji CrystalArchive (for color prints from negatives) and Cibachrome/Ilfochrome (for color prints from positive transparencies). For printing monochrome photographs, traditional silver-based papers are widely felt to retain some advantage over inkjet prints.

Photo paper is usually divided into glossy, semi-matte or "silk", and matte finishes. The thickness of photo paper varies over a wide range. The lighter weights are not much different from general-purpose office papers as described above, and can be used for all types of printing, although these are the least expensive lowest-quality photo paper.

Photo papers for more critical work are thicker and have advanced coatings, sometimes with quick-drying properties. They can normally only be printed on one side, because only one side has the special coating. There are a few papers suitable for double-sided printing.

Glossy photo paper, which is generally the most popular, has a shiny finish that gives photos a vivid look. It will generally be smooth to the touch and will have some glare to it. Matte photo paper is less shiny and has less of a glare than glossy paper. It is often used to produce superior text results. Matte and glossy prints will typically feel different to the touch, but when displayed under glass their results will often look very similar. To increase the resemblance to oil paintings, papers with an imitation canvas texture are available. Photo papers are usually high-brightness neutral white papers, but a few off-white papers are made.

As in offset litho printing and traditional photographic printing, glossy papers give the highest color density (or Dmax), and therefore the widest color gamut. Photo papers vary in their longevity and their color gamut. Ink suppliers often provide color profiles for their ink systems when used with specific papers. Longevity depends on the specific combination of inks and paper. For maximum life, the paper substrate will be "woodfree" (i.e. wood-based but without lignin), or cotton-based, or a combination of the two. Plastic substrates also exist.

Currently there is no official designation of what constitute glossy, semi-matte, etc., although an objective measuring scale is available for the glossiness of papers used in offset litho printing. Leading paper manufacturers such as Hewlett-Packard, Epson and Kodak all use their own terms to describe their paper, such as Everyday (HP), Premium High Gloss and Lustre (Epson) and Ultima (Kodak). ECI (www.eci.org)have catogorised papers for proofing simulation of litho papers (type1/2 etc)

Types of Paper Available

Freestyle Photographic Supplies identifies a number of different types of Inkjet papers available. (See the Reference section for the specific link for this site.)

A more detailed look at these different types of papers will illustrate just how many choices there are for the photographer, including:

  • Canvas…
    Real canvas with an inkjet emulsion for photographic printing in inkjet printers.
  • Double-Sided Papers…
    Inkjet papers in this category feature inkjet emulsions on both sides for creating portfolios, greeting cards and presentations.
  • Dye Compatible…
    These papers will yield superior results with Dye based printers such as Epson Stylus Photo 870, 890, 900, or 1280. They do not have the instant dry emulsions necessary for use with pigment or pigmented based printers.
  • Fine Art Papers…
    These papers are categorized as “fine art” as the base used in their manufacture is the same as the papers used by fine art printmakers, painters and other types of artists the world over. Used with pigment or pigmented based inkjet printers they offer your best chance at archival permanence.
  • General Purpose Papers…
    Inexpensive papers used for proofs, photos, presentations, text and letters.
  • Greeting Cards/Card Size…
    Inkjet papers sized for greeting cards, postcards, invitations, etc.
  • Pigment Compatible…
    These papers are compatible with Pigment or Pigmented ink printers such as Epson Stylus Photo 2000P, 2200, R2400, R800 or R1800. They generally feature fast or instant dry emulsions and can also be used for Dye based printers.
  • Rolls…
    Inkjet paper in roll format for use in printers that have roll paper feed capability
  • Specialty inkjet…
    Inkjet material that is not paper such as Overhead Transparency Material (OHP), Polyester Glossy White Film, or Iron On transfer material.
Qualities of Inkjet Photo Paper

Store Shelves of Photo Paper About.com provides a good guide to the different features that you will find in Inkjet Photo Papers available in the present marketplace. Check out the full article and its references via the link in the Reference section below.

The variety of photo quality inkjet papers can seem overwhelming. However, there are really only five main differences in all these papers with four of these playing a critical role: brightness, weight, caliper, and finish.

Learn how to choose the right paper for your needs based on these criteria and see how a few different types of paper stack up against each other:

  • Opacity…
    How see-through is the paper? The higher the opacity, the less that printed text and images will bleed through to the other side. This is especially important for double-sided printing. Inkjet photo papers have a relatively high opacity (94-97 usually) compared to ordinary inkjet or laser papers so bleed-through is less of a problem with these papers.
  • Brightness…
    How white is white? In terms of paper, there are many different levels of whiteness or brightness. Brightness is expressed as a number from 1 to 100. Photo papers are usually in the high 90s. Not all papers are labeled with their brightness rating; therefore, the best way to determine brightness is simply to compare two or more papers side-by-side.
  • Weight…
    Paper weight may be expressed in pounds (lb.) or as grams per square meter (g/m2). Different types of paper have their own weight scale. The bond papers which include most inkjet photo papers are found in the 24 to 71 lb. (90 to 270 g/m2) range. Terms such as heavyweight do not necessarily indicate a heavier paper than other comparable papers as you will see in the Weight comparison.
  • Caliper…
    Photo papers are heavier and thicker than typical multi-purpose papers. This thickness, known as caliper, is necessary to accommodate the greater ink coverage typically found in photos. Typical inkjet paper caliper may be anywhere from a thin 4.3 mil to a thick 10.4 mil paper. Photo paper is usually 7 to 10 mils.
  • Gloss Finish…
    The coating on photo papers give your printed photos the look and feel of photographic prints. Because the coating keeps the paper from readily absorbing the ink some glossy papers dry slowly. However, quick-dry gloss finishes are common today. The finish may be described as high gloss, gloss, soft gloss, or semi-gloss, each reflecting the amount of shine. Satin is a less shiny coated finish.
  • Matte Finish…
    Images printed on photo matte papers appear soft and non-reflective, not shiny. Matte finish papers are not the same as regular inkjet finish papers. Matte finish photo papers are thicker and are specially formulated for photos. Many matte finish papers are printable on both sides.

     

References:

Background and biographical information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Printers (Computing)…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photo_Printer

Wikipedia: Inkjet Printers…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inkjet_printers

Wikipedia: Media Preservation…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_preservation

Wikipedia: Inkjet Paper…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inkjet_paper

Web Sites and Blogs:

Freestyle Photographic Supplies: Inkjet Papers…
http://www.freestylephoto.biz/c3000-Inkjet-Papers

About.com: “Before You Buy Inkjet Photo Paper”…
http://desktoppub.about.com/cs/paper/bb/inkjetpaper.htm

Brainy Quote: Darkroom Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/darkroom.html

by Gerald Boerner

  

JerryPhoto_8x8_P1010031 We are starting today with a series of postings that will examine the likely nominees for the Supreme Court vacancy that will result from the retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens in June. Interestingly, most of the leading candidates are women, and women of extensive legal experience. We will be interested to see whether the expediency of getting the nominee confirmed will overshadow the selection of the most prepared, most experienced, and most appropriate person for that position.GLB

    

“Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”
— Martin Luther King, Jr.

“I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that his justice cannot sleep forever.”
— Thomas Jefferson

“I have always found that mercy bears richer fruits than strict justice.”
— Abraham Lincoln

“Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all.”
— George Washington

“All the great things are simple, and many can be expressed in a single word: freedom, justice, honor, duty, mercy, hope.”
— Winston Churchill

“In matters of truth and justice, there is no difference between large and small problems, for issues concerning the treatment of people are all the same.”
— Albert Einstein

“America and Islam are not exclusive and need not be in competition. Instead, they overlap, and share common principles of justice and progress, tolerance and the dignity of all human beings.”
— Barack Obama

“Human progress is neither automatic nor inevitable… Every step toward the goal of justice requires sacrifice, suffering, and struggle; the tireless exertions and passionate concern of dedicated individuals.”
— Martin Luther King, Jr.

  

Supreme Court Candidates: Elena Kagan

Official_portrait_of_Barack_Obama President Barack Obama has made one appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States, that of Judge Sonia Sotomayor to fill the vacancy created by the retirement of Associate Justice David H. Souter. Sotomayor was confirmed by the United States Senate on August 6, 2009. He will additionally have the opportunity to fill the vacancy created by John Paul Stevens, who has announced his intention to retire at the end of the court’s term in June 2010. Speculation has also focused on the potential retirement of 77-year-old Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who has been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

Court demographics

Demographic considerations have played into the appointment of Supreme Court justices since the institution was established. Starting in the twentieth century, these concerns shifted from geographic representation to issues of gender and ethnicity.

Prior to the 2008 presidential election, many court watchers suggested that the next president would be under significant pressure to appoint another woman or ethnic minority to the court. The case for naming more women was particularly widespread given the recent retirement of Sandra Day O’Connor and the rapidly changing demographics of the legal community, with women now accounting for about a fifth of all law partners and law school deans, a quarter of the federal bench, and nearly half of all law school graduates. Shortly before the election, for example, NPR reported, "Most observers of the Supreme Court agree about one thing: The next nominee is likely to be a woman". Furthermore, after Obama’s presidential election victory, Hispanic legal interests groups such as the Hispanic National Bar Association began urging Obama to nominate a Hispanic justice.

Given the relative youth of the most recent Republican appointments, it was also noted that Democrats had, "a strong incentive to pick younger justices this time around". Age proved to be an important consideration for Obama, who was "looking for a justice who will be an intellectual force on the court for many years to come". As a result, Obama did not seriously consider candidates such as Jose Cabranes, Amalya Kearse, Diana Gribbon Motz, David Tatel, and Laurence Tribe, all of whom he respected but were older than 65 when Obama was looking to replace David Souter.

Introducing Elena Kagan

Elena_Kagan_1 Elena Kagan (born: 1960) is the Solicitor General of the United States. She is the first woman to hold that office, having been nominated by President Barack Obama on January 26, 2009, and confirmed by the U.S. Senate on March 19, 2009. Kagan was formerly dean of Harvard Law School and Charles Hamilton Houston Professor of Law at Harvard University. She was previously a professor of law at the University of Chicago Law School. She served as Associate White House Counsel under President Bill Clinton.

Kagan was born to a Jewish family in New York City. After graduating from Hunter College High School in 1977, Kagan earned an A.B., summa cum laude, from Princeton University in 1981, an BCL from Worcester College, Oxford University, in 1983, and a J.D., magna cum laude, from Harvard Law School in 1986. She was editorial chairman of the Daily Princetonian and later supervising editor of the Harvard Law Review.

Kagan was a law clerk for Judge Abner Mikva of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and for Justice Thurgood Marshall of the U.S. Supreme Court. She later entered private practice as an associate at the Washington, D.C., law firm of Williams & Connolly.

Academia

Kagan launched her academic career at the University of Chicago Law School. She became an assistant professor in 1991 and a tenured professor of law in 1995.

Her interests focus on administrative law, including the role of the President of the United States in formulating and influencing federal administrative and regulatory law. Her 2001 Harvard Law Review article, "Presidential Administration," was honored as the year’s top scholarly article by the American Bar Association’s Section on Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice, and is being developed into a book to be published by Harvard University Press. Kagan has also written widely on a range of First Amendment issues, taking positions generally supportive of free speech rights.

White House

From 1995 to 1999, Kagan served as President Bill Clinton’s Associate White House Counsel and Deputy Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy and Deputy Director of the Domestic Policy Council.

1999 judicial Nomination

On June 17, 1999, President Clinton nominated Kagan to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, to replace James L. Buckley, who had taken senior status in 1996. The Senate Judiciary Committee’s Republican chairman Orrin Hatch scheduled no hearing, effectively ending her nomination. When Clinton’s term ended, she and Allen Snyder were unconfirmed nominees for the D.C. circuit court.

In 2001, President George W. Bush nominated John G. Roberts to the seat to which Kagan had been nominated; Roberts was confirmed in 2003, and was elevated to the Supreme Court in 2005 upon his confirmation as Chief Justice of the United States.

Dean of Harvard Law School

Lawrence Summers appointed Kagan the first female dean of Harvard Law School in 2003. She succeeded Robert C. Clark, who had served as dean for over a decade. The focus of her tenure was on improving student satisfaction. Efforts included constructing new facilities and reforming the first year curriculum, as well as aesthetic changes and creature comforts, such as free morning coffee. She has been credited for employing a consensus-building leadership style, which surmounted the school’s previous ideological discord.

She also inherited a $400 million capital campaign, "Setting the Standard," in 2003. It ended in 2008 with a record breaking $476 million raised, 19% more than the original goal.[7] Kagan made a number of prominent new hires, increasing the size of the faculty considerably.

Her name was briefly mooted to replace Summers as president of Harvard. During her deanship, Kagan supported a long-standing policy barring military recruiters from campus, because she felt that the military’s Don’t ask, don’t tell policy discriminated against homosexuals.

Solicitor General Nomination

On January 5, 2009, President-elect Barack Obama announced he would nominate Kagan to be Solicitor General. Before this appointment she had limited courtroom experience. She had never argued a case at trial, and had not argued before the Supreme Court of the United States. This is not uncommon, however, as at least two previous Solicitors General, Robert Bork and Kenneth Starr, had no previous appellate experience at the Supreme Court, though Starr served as a Circuit Court Judge prior to acting as Solicitor General.

At her confirmation hearing, Kagan also drew criticism for arguing that battlefield law, including indefinite detention without a trial, could apply outside of traditional battlefields.

Kagan was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on March 19, 2009, by a vote of 61 to 31. She made her first appearance in oral argument before the Supreme Court on September 9, 2009, in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission.

Possible Supreme Court Nomination

Long before the election of President Barack Obama, Kagan was the subject of repeated speculation that she might be nominated to the Supreme Court of the United States if a Democratic president were elected in 2008. This speculation greatly increased on May 1, 2009, when Associate Justice David H. Souter announced his intention to retire from the court at the end of June 2009. It was speculated that her new position as Solicitor General could increase Kagan’s already much discussed chances to be nominated, since solicitors general have often been considered potential nominees to the Supreme Court in the past. On May 13, 2009, the Associated Press reported that President Obama was considering Kagan, among others, for possible appointment to the United States Supreme Court. On May 26, 2009, however, President Obama announced that he was nominating Sonia Sotomayor to be the next United States Supreme Court Justice. On April 9, 2010, Justice John Paul Stevens announced that he would retire as soon as the Court finished its current caseload in late June or July, triggering a new round of speculation around Kagan as a possible nominee to the bench.

A Perspective

The Huffington Post recently posted an article on Elena Kagan and her status in the nomination competition for a Supreme Court nomination. Check out the full article from the link in the Reference section below.

s-ELENA-KAGAN-large Elena Kagan, President Obama’s solicitor general, is rapidly emerging as a frontrunner to replace retiring Chief Associate Justice John Paul Stevens. Kagan is widely praised as an accomplished and intelligent attorney, but is far more conservative than Stevens and could shift the political dynamic of the high court.

Conservatives are responding favorably to the potential of a Justice Elena Kagan while liberals worry that, by choosing her, the administration would miss the opportunity to elevate a genuine progressive.

John Manning, a conservative professor at Harvard Law School, where Kagan served as dean, told HuffPost that he would firmly support a Kagan nomination. Professor Charles Fried, a Reagan administration solicitor general, also said that he’d support a Kagan pick.

"She is a supremely intelligent person, really one of the most intelligent people I have encountered, and I have met a lot of them, as one does in this business. She is very adroit politically," said Fried. "She has quite a strong personality and a winning personality. I think she’s an effective, powerful person and a very, very intelligent person, and a very hardworking and serious person."

Fried served on the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts from 1995-1999 and is now at Harvard Law School. He said that Republicans would be well-advised to get behind her, but may decide to oppose just for the sake of opposition.

"Let’s put it this way: she should be [backed by Republicans]. But it depends on the politics," he said. "Republicans may just decide that: ‘We’re going to say no to what Obama comes up with the first time and we’ll come up with a reason why after we’ve decided that we’re going to say no.’ I can’t predict that that’s what they’ll do or not. But she should be, she should be."

Fried has known Kagan for years and said he may even have had her as a student. He first met her when she was a visiting professor at Harvard. He was on the board that approved her for tenure and also on the selection committee that tapped her to be dean.

     

References:

Background and biographical information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Elena Kagan… 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elena_Kagan

Wikipedia: Barak Obama Supreme Court Candidates
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama_Supreme_Court_candidates

Other Web Sites:

The Huffington Post: “Elena Kagan Emerging as Supreme Court Front-Runner…
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/04/09/elena-kagan-emerging-as-s_n_532319.html

Brainy Quote: Justice Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/justice.html

by Gerald Boerner

  

JerryPhoto_8x8_P1010031 Andrew Jackson, soldier, legislator, governor, judge, and President of the United States was the first president to be born in a log cabin. He fought the British in the War of 1812 and led the American forces to victory in the Battle of New Orleans (after the signing of the peace treaty). He was affectionately known as Old Hickory to his men. His service to the country received mixed reviews due to his support of slavery and taking of Indian lands in the East. But he served two terms a President and survived an assassination attempt. He set the model to the new American democrat.  GLB

    

“Americans are not a perfect people, but we are called to a perfect mission.”
— Andrew Jackson

“All the rights secured to the citizens under the Constitution are worth nothing, and a mere bubble, except guaranteed to them by an independent and virtuous Judiciary.”
— Andrew Jackson

“Any man worth his salt will stick up for what he believes right, but it takes a slightly better man to acknowledge instantly and without reservation that he is in error.”
— Andrew Jackson

“Democracy shows not only its power in reforming governments, but in regenerating a race of men and this is the greatest blessing of free governments.”
— Andrew Jackson

“I feel in the depths of my soul that it is the highest, most sacred, and most irreversible part of my obligation to preserve the union of these states, although it may cost me my life.”
— Andrew Jackson

“Every good citizen makes his country’s honor his own, and cherishes it not only as precious but as sacred. He is willing to risk his life in its defense and its conscious that he gains protection while he gives it.”
— Andrew Jackson

“Every diminution of the public burdens arising from taxation gives to individual enterprise increased power and furnishes to all the members of our happy confederacy new motives for patriotic affection and support.”
— Andrew Jackson

“As long as our government is administered for the good of the people, and is regulated by their will; as long as it secures to us the rights of persons and of property, liberty of conscience and of the press, it will be worth defending.”
— Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson: Old Hickory

Andrew_Jackson_drawn_on_stone_by_Lafosse,_1856-crop Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States (1829–1837). He was military governor of Florida (1821), commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815), and eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy. A polarizing figure who dominated American politics in the 1820s and 1830s, his political ambition combined with widening political participation, shaping the modern Democratic Party.

His legacy is now seen as mixed, as a protector of popular democracy and individual liberty for white men, checkered by his support for slavery and Indian removal. Renowned for his toughness, he was nicknamed “Old Hickory.” As he based his career in developing Tennessee, Jackson was the first president primarily associated with the American frontier.

Early Life and Career

Andrew Jackson was born to Presbyterian Scotch-Irish colonists Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, on March 15, 1767, approximately two years after they had emigrated from Ireland. Jackson’s father, Andrew Jackson, Sr., was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, in Ireland around 1738. He married Elizabeth, sold his land and emigrated to America in 1765. The Jacksons probably landed in Pennsylvania and made their way overland to the Scotch-Irish community in the Waxhaws region, straddling the border between North Carolina and South Carolina. Jackson had two brothers: Hugh (born 1763) and Robert (born 1764). Andrew Jackson, Sr., injured himself while lifting a log and died February 1767, aged only 29. The house that Jackson’s parents lived in is now preserved as the Andrew Jackson Centre and is open to the public. Three weeks after his father’s death, Andrew was born in the Waxhaws area. He was the youngest of the Jacksons’ three sons. His exact birth site was the subject of conflicting lore in the area. Jackson claimed to have been born in a cabin just inside South Carolina.

Jackson received a sporadic education in the local “old-field” school. During the American Revolutionary War, Jackson, at age thirteen, joined a local regiment as a courier. His eldest brother, Hugh, died from heat exhaustion during the Battle of Stono Ferry, on June 20, 1779. Andrew and his brother Robert Jackson were captured by the British and held as prisoners of war; they nearly starved to death in captivity. When Andrew refused to clean the boots of a British officer, the irate redcoat slashed at him with a sword, giving him scars on his left hand and head, as well as an intense hatred for the British. While imprisoned, the brothers contracted smallpox. Robert died a few days after their mother secured their release, on April 27, 1781. After Jackson’s mother was assured Andrew would recover, she volunteered to nurse prisoners of war on board two ships in Charleston harbor, where there had been an outbreak of cholera. She died from the disease and was buried in an unmarked grave in November 1781. Jackson was orphaned by age 14. Jackson’s entire immediate family had died from hardships during the war for which Jackson blamed the British.

Jackson was the last U.S. President to have been a veteran of the American Revolution, and the second president to have been a prisoner of war (Washington was captured by the French in the French and Indian War).

In 1781, Jackson worked for a time in a saddle-maker’s shop. Later, he taught school and studied law in Salisbury, North Carolina. In 1787, he was admitted to the bar, and moved to Jonesborough, in what was then the Western District of North Carolina and later became Tennessee.

Though his legal education was scanty, Jackson knew enough to be a country lawyer on the frontier. Since he was not from a distinguished family, he had to make his career by his own merits; soon he began to prosper in the rough-and-tumble world of frontier law. Most of the actions grew out of disputed land-claims, or from assaults and battery. In 1788, he was appointed Solicitor of the Western District and held the same position in the territorial government of Tennessee after 1791.

In 1796, Jackson was a delegate to the Tennessee constitutional convention. When Tennessee achieved statehood that year, Jackson was elected its U.S. Representative. In 1797, he was elected U.S. Senator as a Democratic-Republican. He resigned within a year. In 1798, he was appointed a judge of the Tennessee Supreme Court, serving until 1804.

Andrew-Jackson-disobeys-British-officer-1780 Jackson refusing to clean
a British officer’s boots
(1876 lithograph).

Besides his legal and political career, Jackson prospered as a slave owner, planter, and merchant. In 1803 he owned a lot, and built a home and the first general store in Gallatin. In 1804, he acquired the Hermitage, a 640-acre (2.6 km2) plantation in Davidson County, near Nashville. Jackson later added 360 acres (1.5 km2) to the farm. The plantation would eventually grow to 1,050 acres (425 ha). The slaves that Jackson owned did the hardest work on the plantation. The primary crop was cotton, grown by enslaved workers. Jackson started with nine slaves, by 1820 he held as many as 44, and later held up to 150 slaves. Throughout his lifetime Jackson would own as many as 300 slaves.

Jackson was a major land speculator in West Tennessee after he had negotiated the sale of the land from the Chickasaw Nation in 1818 (termed the Jackson Purchase) and was one of the three original investors who founded Memphis, Tennessee in 1819 (see History of Memphis, Tennessee).

Military Career

War of 1812

Jackson was appointed commander of the Tennessee militia in 1801, with the rank of colonel.

During the War of 1812, Tecumseh incited the “Red Stick” Creek Indians of northern Alabama and Georgia to attack white settlements. Four hundred settlers were killed in the Fort Mims Massacre. In the resulting Creek War, Jackson commanded the American forces, which included Tennessee militia, U.S. regulars, and Cherokee, Choctaw, and Southern Creek Indians.

Jackson defeated the Red Stick Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. Eight hundred “Red Sticks” were killed, but Jackson spared chief William Weatherford. Sam Houston and David Crockett served under Jackson in this campaign. After the victory, Jackson imposed the Treaty of Fort Jackson upon both the Northern Creek enemies and the Southern Creek allies, wresting twenty-million acres (81,000 km²) from all Creeks for white settlement. Jackson was appointed Major General after this action.

Battle_of_New_Orleans The Battle of New Orleans.
General Andrew Jackson stands
on the parapet of his makeshift
defenses as his troops repulse
attacking Highlanders, as imagined
by painter Edward Percy Moran
in 1910.

Jackson’s service in the War of 1812 against the United Kingdom was conspicuous for bravery and success. When British forces threatened New Orleans, Jackson took command of the defenses, including militia from several western states and territories. He was a strict officer but was popular with his troops. It was said he was “tough as old hickory” wood on the battlefield, which gave him his nickname. In the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815, Jackson’s 5,000 soldiers won a victory over 7,500 British. At the end of the day, the British had 2,037 casualties: 291 dead (including three senior generals), 1,262 wounded, and 484 captured or missing. The Americans had 71 casualties: 13 dead, 39 wounded, and 19 missing.

The war, and especially this victory, made Jackson a national hero. He received the Thanks of Congress and a gold medal by resolution of February 27, 1815. Alexis de Tocqueville would later comment in Democracy in America that Jackson “was raised to the Presidency, and has been maintained there, solely by the recollection of a victory which he gained, twenty years ago, under the walls of New Orleans.”

First Seminole War

Jackson served in the military again during the First Seminole War. He was ordered by President James Monroe in December 1817 to lead a campaign in Georgia against the Seminole and Creek Indians. Jackson was also charged with preventing Spanish Florida from becoming a refuge for runaway slaves. Critics later alleged that Jackson exceeded orders in his Florida actions. His directions were to “terminate the conflict.” Jackson believed the best way to do this would be to seize Florida. Before going, Jackson wrote to Monroe, “Let it be signified to me through any channel… that the possession of the Floridas would be desirable to the United States, and in sixty days it will be accomplished.” Monroe gave Jackson orders that were purposely ambiguous, sufficient for international denials.

Bustofandrewjackson Military governor Jackson was
sworn in at Plaza Ferdinand VII
in Pensacola, Florida.

The Seminoles attacked Jackson’s Tennessee volunteers. The Seminoles’ attack, however, left their villages vulnerable, and Jackson burned them and the crops. He found letters that indicated that the Spanish and British were secretly assisting the Indians. Jackson believed that the United States would not be secure as long as Spain and the United Kingdom encouraged Indians to fight and argued that his actions were undertaken in self-defense. Jackson captured Pensacola, Florida, with little more than some warning shots, and deposed the Spanish governor. He captured and then tried and executed two British subjects, Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot, who had been supplying and advising the Indians. Jackson’s action also struck fear into the Seminole tribes as word spread of his ruthlessness in battle (Jackson was known as “Sharp Knife”).

The executions, and Jackson’s invasion of territory belonging to Spain, a country with which the U.S. was not at war, created an international incident. Many in the Monroe administration called for Jackson to be censured. Jackson’s actions were defended by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, an early believer in Manifest Destiny. When the Spanish minister demanded a “suitable punishment” for Jackson, Adams wrote back, “Spain must immediately [decide] either to place a force in Florida adequate at once to the protection of her territory … or cede to the United States a province, of which she retains nothing but the nominal possession, but which is, in fact … a post of annoyance to them.” Adams used Jackson’s conquest, and Spain’s own weakness, to get Spain to cede Florida to the United States by the Adams-Onís Treaty. Jackson was subsequently named military governor and served from March 10, 1821, to December 31, 1821.

Election of 1824

The Tennessee legislature nominated Jackson for President in 1822. It also elected him U.S. Senator again.

Andrew_Jackson Jackson in 1824, painting
by Thomas Sully.

By 1824, the Democratic-Republican Party had become the only functioning national party. Its Presidential candidates had been chosen by an informal Congressional nominating caucus, but this had become unpopular. In 1824, most of the Democratic-Republicans in Congress boycotted the caucus. Those who attended backed Treasury Secretary William H. Crawford for President and Albert Gallatin for Vice President. A Pennsylvanian convention nominated Jackson for President a month later, stating that the irregular caucus ignored the “voice of the people” and was a “vain hope that the American people might be thus deceived into a belief that he [Crawford] was the regular democratic candidate.” Gallatin criticized Jackson as “an honest man and the idol of the worshippers of military glory, but from incapacity, military habits, and habitual disregard of laws and constitutional provisions, altogether unfit for the office.”

Andrew_Jackson_statue_County_Courthouse_KC_Missouri Statue of Jackson as General
in front of Jackson County
Courthouse in Kansas City,
Missouri.

Besides Jackson and Crawford, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and House Speaker Henry Clay were also candidates. Jackson received the most popular votes (but not a majority, and four states had no popular ballot). The Electoral votes were split four ways, with Jackson having a plurality. Since no candidate received a majority, the election was decided by the House of Representatives, which chose Adams. Jackson supporters denounced this result as a “corrupt bargain” because Clay gave his state’s support to Adams, and subsequently Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State. As none of Kentucky’s electors had initially voted for Adams, and Jackson had won the popular vote, it appeared that Henry Clay had violated the will of the people and substituted his own judgment in return for personal political favors. Jackson’s defeat burnished his political credentials, however; many voters believed the “man of the people” had been robbed by the “corrupt aristocrats of the East.”

Election of 1828

Jackson resigned from the Senate in October 1825, but continued his quest for the Presidency. The Tennessee legislature again nominated Jackson for President. Jackson attracted Vice President John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren, and Thomas Ritchie into his camp (the latter two previous supporters of Crawford). Van Buren, with help from his friends in Philadelphia and Richmond, revived the old Republican Party, gave it a new name as the Democratic Party, “restored party rivalries,” and forged a national organization of durability. The Jackson coalition handily defeated Adams in 1828.

During the election, Jackson’s opponents referred to him as a “jackass.” Jackson liked the name and used the jackass as a symbol for a while, but it died out. However, it later became the symbol for the Democratic Party when cartoonist Thomas Nast popularized it.[24]

The campaign was very much a personal one. Although neither candidate personally campaigned, their political followers organized many campaign events. Both candidates were rhetorically attacked in the press, which reached a low point when the press accused Jackson’s wife Rachel of bigamy. Though the accusation was true, as were most personal attacks leveled against him during the campaign, it was based on events that occurred many years prior (1791 to 1794). Jackson said he would forgive those who insulted him, but he would never forgive the ones who attacked his wife. Rachel died suddenly on December 22, 1828, before his inauguration, and was buried on Christmas Eve.

Inauguration

Jackson was the first President to invite the public to attend the White House ball honoring his first inauguration. Many poor people came to the inaugural ball in their homemade clothes. The crowd became so large that Jackson’s guards could not hold them out of the White House. The White House became so crowded with people that dishes and decorative pieces in the White House began to break. Some people stood on good chairs in muddied boots just to get a look at the President. The crowd had become so wild that the attendants poured punch in tubs and put it on the White House lawn to lure people out of the White House. Jackson’s raucous populism earned him the nickname King Mob.

Election of 1832

In the 1832 presidential election, Jackson easily won reelection as the candidate of the Democratic Party against Henry Clay, of the National Republican Party, and William Wirt, of the Anti-Masonic Party. Jackson jettisoned Vice President John C. Calhoun because of his support for nullification and involvement in the Petticoat affair, replacing him with longtime confidant Martin Van Buren of New York.

Family and Personal Life

Andrew_Jackson-1844-2 Daguerreotype of Andrew Jackson
at age 77 or 78 (1844 or 1845).

Shortly after Jackson first arrived in Nashville in 1788, he lived as a boarder with Rachel Stockley Donelson, the widow of John Donelson. Here Jackson became acquainted with their daughter, Rachel Donelson Robards. At the time, Rachel Robards was in an unhappy marriage with Captain Lewis Robards, a man subject to irrationa fits of jealous rage. Due to Lewis Robards’ temperament, the two were separated in 1790. According to Jackson, he married Rachel after hearing that Robards had obtained a divorce. However, the divorce had never been completed, making Rachel’s marriage to Jackson technically bigamous and therefore invalid. After the divorce was officially completed, Rachel and Jackson remarried in 1794. However, there is evidence that Donelson had been living with Jackson and referred to herself as Mrs. Jackson before the petition for divorce was ever made. It was not uncommon on the frontier for relationships to be formed and dissolved unofficially, as long as they were recognized by the community.

The controversy surrounding their marriage remained a sore point for Jackson, who deeply resented attacks on his wife’s honor. Jackson fought 13 duels, many nominally over his wife’s honor. Charles Dickinson, the only man Jackson ever killed in a duel, had been goaded into angering Jackson by Jackson’s political opponents. In the duel, fought over a horse-racing debt and an insult to his wife on May 30, 1806, Dickinson shot Jackson in the ribs before Jackson returned the fatal shot; Jackson allowed Dickinson to shoot first, knowing him to be an excellent shot, and as his opponent reloaded, Jackson shot, even as the bullet lodged itself in his chest. The bullet that struck Jackson was so close to his heart that it could never be safely removed. Jackson had been wounded so frequently in duels that it was said he “rattled like a bag of marbles.” At times he would cough up blood, and he experienced considerable pain from his wounds for the rest of his life.

Rachel died of a heart attack on December 22, 1828, two weeks after her husband’s victory in the election and two months before Jackson taking office as President. Jackson blamed John Quincy Adams for Rachel’s death because the marital scandal was brought up in the election of 1828. He felt that this had hastened her death and never forgave Adams.

References

Other Events on this Day:

  • In 1606…
    Kin James I of England charters the London Company to establish settlements in North America.
  • In 1781…
    In South Carolina, young Andrew Jackson is part of a Patriot militia band ambushed by the British
    .
  • In 1849…
    Walter Hunt of New York City patents the safety pin.
  • In 1925…
    The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is published.
  • In 1942…
    The Japanese begin the Bataan Death March, a brutal 90-mile forced march of Filipino and American soldiers on the Bataan Peninsula to POW camps.

Dates and events based on:

William J. Bennett and John Cribb, (2008) The American Patriot’s Almanac Daily Readings on America. (Kindle Edition)

Background information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Andrew Jackson… 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Jackson

Brainy Quote: Andrew Jackson Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/andrew_jackson.html

by Gerald Boerner

  

JerryPhoto_8x8_P1010031 Today we focus our attention on the period that followed the latter part of the Renaissance, the Manner, and started to movement towards the wider definition of art. The Manner period introduced highly stylistic techniques in art and architecture and the Baroque period that followed gave additional definition to these styles.

During the Baroque period, we find that art was brought into the service of the Church and the Absolute Monarchs who reigned throughout Europe. The subjects were generally religious and the colors were somber. Art was used as a way of keeping the population “in line.” While Art, Architecture, Music and Literature flourished during this Baroque period, but all in the name of the Church and the State.

It would await a later period before expressive freedom would be realized, but at least the Renaissance awakened the fire that would light the way into the modern era.  GLB

    

“Classical, Romantic, and Baroque music, that’s what I really like.”
— Joan Armatrading

“Not unless I do all these ancient and Italian or French or Baroque in the beginnning, I do German.”
— Victoria de los Angeles

“Prose is architecture, not interior decoration, and the Baroque is over.”
— Ernest Hemingway

“A contemporary artist can use the findings of all epochs and all styles, from the most primitive literary expressions up to the most refined products of the baroque.”
— Juan Goytisolo

“Borne out of this, starting around the 17th Century was the Baroque era. It is my view that it is one of the architectural peak periods in western civilisation.”
— Harry Seidler

“Has it struck you that the music which is regarded as the most sublime in western civilization, which is the music of Bach, is called baroque?”
— Pierre Schaeffer

“I still the love classic period, but also the baroque period, and even 17th-Century music such as the music of Monteverdi. He’s one of the greatest opera composers. He was the one who really started the opera.”
— Cecilia Bartoli

“After that I won a prize, I was with a group of ancient music of Spain that they helped me a lot with a grant, you see, during three years. And so I made my debut in 1944 and I found myself helping my family, it was a very poor family.”
— Victoria de los Angeles

  

Note:
This posting is intended for the educational use of photographers and photography students and complies with the “educational fair use” provisions of copyright law. For readers who might wish to reuse some of these images should check out their compliance with copyright limitations that might apply to that use.

GLB

  

Renaissance Art: Transitions to the Baroque

Rubens_Adoration Baroque is an artistic style prevalent from the late 16th century to the early 18th century. It is most often defined as "the dominant style of art in Europe between the Mannerist and Rococo eras, a style characterized by dynamic movement, overt emotion and self-confident rhetoric".

The popularity and success of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church, which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent, in response to the Protestant Reformation, that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement. The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of Baroque architecture and art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing triumphant power and control. Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence.

Evolution of the Baroque

Beginning around the year 1600, the demands for new art resulted in what is now known as the Baroque. The canon promulgated at the Council of Trent (1545–63) with which the Roman Catholic Church addressed the representational arts, rooted in the Protestant Reformation, by demanding that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed, is customarily offered as an inspiration of the Baroque, which appeared, however, a generation later.

BarocciAeneas Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598.

The appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It employed an iconography that was direct, simple, obvious, and dramatic. Baroque art drew on certain broad and heroic tendencies in Annibale Carracci and his circle, and found inspiration in other artists such as Caravaggio, and Federico Barocci nowadays sometimes termed ‘proto-Baroque’.

Seminal ideas of the Baroque can also be found in the work of Michelangelo and Correggio.

Some general parallels in music make the expression "Baroque music" useful. Contrasting phrase lengths, harmony and counterpoint ousted polyphony, and orchestral color made a stronger appearance. (See Baroque music.) Similar fascination with simple, strong, dramatic expression in poetry, where clear, broad syncopated rhythms replaced the enknotted elaborated metaphysical similes employed by Mannerists such as John Donne and imagery that was strongly influenced by visual developments in painting, can be sensed in John Milton’s Paradise Lost, a Baroque epic.

Though Baroque was superseded in many centers by the Rococo style, beginning in France in the late 1720s, especially for interiors, paintings and the decorative arts, Baroque architecture remained a viable style until the advent of Neoclassicism in the later 18th century.

In paintings, Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures: less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, a major Baroque artform. Baroque poses depend on contrapposto ("counterpoise"), the tension within the figures that moves the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. It made the sculptures almost seem like they were about to move.

The drier, chastened, less dramatic and coloristic, later stages of 18th century Baroque architectural style are often seen as a separate Late Baroque manifestation. Academic characteristics in the neo-Palladian architectural style, epitomized by William Kent, are a parallel development in Britain and the British colonies: within interiors, Kent’s furniture designs are vividly influenced by the Baroque furniture of Rome and Genoa, hierarchical tectonic sculptural elements, meant never to be moved from their positions, completed the wall decoratio. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich, heavy detail.

Art historians, often Protestant ones, have traditionally emphasized that the Baroque style evolved during a time in which the Roman Catholic Church had to react against the many revolutionary cultural movements that produced a new science and new forms of religion—the Reformation. It has been said that the monumental Baroque is a style that could give the papacy, like secular absolute monarchies, a formal, imposing way of expression that could restore its prestige, at the point of becoming somehow symbolic of the Catholic Reformation. Whether this is the case or not, it was successfully developed in Rome, where Baroque architecture widely renewed the central areas with perhaps the most important urbanistic revision during this period of time.

Baroque Painting

Josefa Obidos4 Still-life, by Portuguese painter Josefa de Óbidos, c.1679,
Santarém, Portugal, Municipal Library

A defining statement of what Baroque signifies in painting is provided by the series of paintings executed by Peter Paul Rubens for Marie de Medici at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris (now at the Louvre), in which a Catholic painter satisfied a Catholic patron: Baroque-era conceptions of monarchy, iconography, handling of paint, and compositions as well as the depiction of space and movement.

There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona; both approaching emotive dynamism with different styles. Another frequently cited work of Baroque art is Bernini’s Saint Theresa in Ecstasy for the Cornaro chapel in Saint Maria della Vittoria, which brings together architecture, sculpture, and theatre into one grand conceit.

The later Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, which, through contrast, further defines Baroque.

The intensity and immediacy of baroque art and its individualism and detail—observed in such things as the convincing rendering of cloth and skin textures—make it one of the most compelling periods of Western art.

A rather different art developed out of northern realist traditions in 17th century Dutch Golden Age painting, which had very little religious art, and little history painting, instead playing a crucial part in developing secular genres such as still life, genre paintings of everyday scenes, and landscape painting. While the Baroque nature of Rembrandt’s art is clear, the label is less often used for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists. Flemish Baroque painting shared a part in this trend, while also continuing to produce the traditional categories.

Baroque Sculpture

In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms— they spiraled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains. Aleijadinho in Brazil was also one of the great names of baroque sculpture, and his master work is the set of statues of the Santuário de Bom Jesus de Matosinhos in Congonhas. The soapstone sculptures of old testament prophets around the terrace are considered amongst his finest work.

The architecture, sculpture and fountains of Bernini (1598–1680) give highly charged characteristics of Baroque style. Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque period. He approached Michelangelo in his omnicompetence: Bernini sculpted, worked as an architect, painted, wrote plays, and staged spectacles. In the late 20th century Bernini was most valued for his sculpture, both for his virtuosity in carving marble and his ability to create figures that combine the physical and the spiritual. He was also a fine sculptor of bust portraits in high demand among the powerful.

Bernini’s Cornaro Chapel: the Complete Work of Art

A good example of Bernini’s work that helps us understand the Baroque is his St. Theresa in Ecstasy (1645–52), created for the Cornaro Chapel of the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. Bernini designed the entire chapel, a subsidiary space along the side of the church, for the Cornaro family.

Bernini‘s Ecstasy of St. Teresa.

Saint Theresa, the focal point of the chapel, is a soft white marble statue surrounded by a polychromatic marble architectural framing. This structure works to conceal a window which lights the statue from above. In shallow relief, sculpted figure-groups of the Cornaro family inhabit in opera boxes along the two side walls of the chapel. The setting places the viewer as a spectator in front of the statue with the Cornaro family leaning out of their box seats and craning forward to see the mystical ecstasy of the saint.

St. Theresa is highly idealized and in an imaginary setting. St. Theresa of Avila, a popular saint of the Catholic Reformation, wrote of her mystical experiences aimed at the nuns of her Carmelite Order; these writings had become popular reading among lay people interested in pursuing spirituality. In her writings, she described the love of God as piercing her heart like a burning arrow. Bernini literalizes this image by placing St. Theresa on a cloud while a Cupid figure holds a golden arrow (the arrow is made of metal) and smiles down at her. The angelic figure is not preparing to plunge the arrow into her heart— rather, he has withdrawn it. St. Theresa’s face reflects not the anticipation of ecstasy, but her current fulfillment, which has been described as orgasmic.

This is widely considered the genius of Baroque although this mix of religious and erotic imagery was extremely offensive in the context of neoclassical restraint. However, Bernini was a devout Catholic and was not attempting to satirize the experience of a chaste nun. Rather, he aimed to portray religious experience as an intensely physical one. Theresa described her bodily reaction to spiritual enlightenment in a language of ecstasy used by many mystics, and Bernini’s depiction is earnest.

The Cornaro family promotes itself discreetly in this chapel; they are represented visually, but are placed on the sides of the chapel, witnessing the event from balconies. As in an opera house, the Cornaro have a privileged position in respect to the viewer, in their private reserve, closer to the saint; the viewer, however, has a better view from the front. They attach their name to the chapel, but St. Theresa is the focus. It is a private chapel in the sense that no one could say mass on the altar beneath the statue (in 17th century and probably through the 19th) without permission from the family, but the only thing that divides the viewer from the image is the altar rail. The spectacle functions both as a demonstration of mysticism and as a piece of family pride.

Baroque Architecture

Stift_melk_001_2004 Melk Abbey, in Austria in the Wachau valley
(architect Jakob Prandtauer)

The Baroque style is noted as first being developed by Seljuk Turks, according to a number of academics like Hoag, John D (1975). [Islamic architecture. London: Faber. ISBN 0571148689.] In Baroque architecture, new emphasis was placed on bold massing, colonnades, domes, light-and-shade (chiaroscuro), ‘painterly’ color effects, and the bold play of volume and void. In interiors, Baroque movement around and through a void informed monumental staircases that had no parallel in previous architecture. The other Baroque innovation in worldly interiors was the state apartment, a processional sequence of increasingly rich interiors that culminated in a presence chamber or throne room or a state bedroom. The sequence of monumental stairs followed by a state apartment was copied in smaller scale everywhere in aristocratic dwellings of any pretensions.

Trier_Kurfuerstliches_Palais_BW_1 Palace of Trier (Germany)

Baroque architecture was taken up with enthusiasm in central Germany (see e.g. Ludwigsburg Palace and Zwinger Dresden), Austria and Russia (see e.g. Peterhof). In England the culmination of Baroque architecture was embodied in work by Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor, from ca. 1660 to ca. 1725. Many examples of Baroque architecture and town planning are found in other European towns, and in Latin America. Town planning of this period featured radiating avenues intersecting in squares, which took cues from Baroque garden plans.In Sicily, Baroque developed new shapes and themes as in Noto, Ragusa and Acireale "Basilica di San Sebastiano"

San_Gaetano,_facciata_11 The main Florentine’s Baroque Church

Another example of baroque architecture is the Cathedral of Morelia Michoacan in Mexico. Built in the 17th century by Vincenzo Barrochio it is one of the many baroque cathedrals in Mexico.

Baroque Architecture is "A style of architecture originating in Italy in the early 17th century and variously prevalent in Europe and the New World for a century and a half, characterized by free and sculptural use of the classical orders and ornament, dynamic opposition and interpenetration of spaces, and the dramatic combined effects of architecture, sculpture, painting, and the decorative arts." p. 133 A Visual Dictionary of Architecture by Francis D.K. Ching

Baroque theatre

In theatre, the elaborate conceits, multiplicity of plot turns, and variety of situations characteristic of Mannerism (Shakespeare’s tragedies, for instance) were superseded by opera, which drew together all the arts into a unified whole.

Theatre evolved in the Baroque era and became a multimedia experience, starting with the actual architectural space. In fact, much of the technology used in current Broadway or commercial plays was invented and developed during this era. The stage could change from a romantic garden to the interior of a palace in a matter of seconds. The entire space became a framed selected area that only allows the users to see a specific action, hiding all the machinery and technology – mostly ropes and pulleys.

This technology affected the content of the narrated or performed pieces, practicing at its best the Deus ex Machina solution. Gods were finally able to come down – literally – from the heavens and rescue the hero in the most extreme and dangerous, even absurd situations.

The term Theatrum Mundi – the world is a stage – was also created. The social and political realm in the real world is manipulated in exactly the same way the actor and the machines are presenting/limiting what is being presented on stage, hiding selectively all the machinery that makes the actions happen.

The films Vatel, Farinelli, and the staging of Monteverdi’s Orpheus at the Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona, give a good idea of the style of productions of the Baroque period. The American musician William Christie and Les Arts Florissants have performed extensive research on all the French Baroque Opera, performing pieces from Charpentier and Lully, among others that are extremely faithful to the original 17th century creations.

Baroque Literature and Philosophy

Baroque actually expressed new values, which often are summarized in the use of metaphor and allegory, widely found in Baroque literature, and in the research for the "maraviglia" (wonder, astonishment — as in Marinism), the use of artifices. The psychological pain of Man — a theme disbanded after the Copernican and the Lutheran revolutions in search of solid anchors, a proof of an "ultimate human power" — was to be found in both the art and architecture of the Baroque period. Virtuosity was researched by artists (and the virtuoso became a common figure in any art) together with realism and care for details (some talk of a typical "intricacy").

The privilege given to external forms had to compensate and balance the lack of content that has been observed in many Baroque works: Marino’s "Maraviglia", for example, is practically made of the pure, mere form. Fantasy and imagination should be evoked in the spectator, in the reader, in the listener. All was focused around the individual Man, as a straight relationship between the artist, or directly the art and its user, its client. Art is then less distant from user, more directly approaching him, solving the cultural gap that used to keep art and user reciprocally far, by Maraviglia. But the increased attention to the individual, also created in these schemes some important genres like the Romanzo (novel) and allowed popular or local forms of art, especially dialectal literature, to be put into evidence. In Italy this movement toward the single individual (that some define a "cultural descent", while others indicate it as a possible cause for the classical opposition to Baroque) caused Latin to be definitely replaced by Italian.

In Spain, the baroque writers are framed in the Siglo de Oro. Naturalism and sharply critical points of view on Spanish society are common among such conceptista writers as Quevedo, while culterano authors emphasize the importance of form with complicated images and the use of hyperbaton. In Catalonia the baroque took hold as well in Catalan language, with representatives including poets and dramaturgs such as Francesc Fontanella and Francesc Vicenç Garcia as well as the unique emblem book Atheneo de Grandesa by Josep Romaguera. In Colonial Spanish America some of the best-known baroque writers were Sor Juana and Bernardo de Balbuena, in Mexico, and Juan de Espinosa Medrano and Juan del Valle y Caviedes, in Peru.

In the Portuguese Empire the most famous baroque writer of the time was Father António Vieira, a Jesuit who lived in Brazil during the 18th century. Secondary writers are Gregório de Matos and Francisco Rodrigues Lobo.

In English literature, the metaphysical poets represent a closely related movement; their poetry likewise sought unusual metaphors, which they then examined in often extensive detail. Their verse also manifests a taste for paradox, and deliberately inventive and unusual turns of phrase.

Baroque Music

Haendel George Frideric Handel, 1733

The term Baroque is also used to designate the style of music composed during a period that overlaps with that of Baroque art, but usually encompasses a slightly later period. Antonio Vivaldi, J.S. Bach and G.F. Handel are often considered its culminating figures.

It is a still-debated question as to what extent Baroque music shares aesthetic principles with the visual and literary arts of the Baroque period. A fairly clear, shared element is a love of ornamentation, and it is perhaps significant that the role of ornament was greatly diminished in both music and architecture as the Baroque gave way to the Classical period.

Johann_Sebastian_Bach Johann Sebastian Bach, 1748

It should be noted that the application of the term "Baroque" to music is a relatively recent development. The first use of the word "Baroque" in music was only in 1919, by Curt Sachs, and it was not until 1940 that it was first used in English (in an article published by Manfred Bukofzer). Even as late as 1960 there was still considerable dispute in academic circles over whether music as diverse as that by Jacopo Peri, François Couperin and J.S. Bach could be meaningfully bundled together under a single stylistic term.

Many musical forms were born in that era, like the concerto and sinfonia. Forms such as the sonata, cantata and oratorio flourished. Also, opera was born out of the experimentation of the Florentine Camerata, the creators of monody, who attempted to recreate the theatrical arts of the Ancient Greeks. Indeed, it is exactly that development which is often used to denote the beginning of the musical Baroque, around 1600. An important technique used in baroque music was the use of ground bass, a repeated bass line. Dido’s Lament by Henry Purcell is a famous example of this technique.

     

References

Background and biographical information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Baroque… 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baroque

Web Sites and Blogs:

Brainy Quote: Baroque Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/baroque.html

by Gerald Boerner

 

JerryPhoto_8x8_P1010031 The first commercially successful hand-held computing device (Personal Digital Assistant, or PDA) was the Palm Pilot. It was a nice package that included a calendar, a contact list, notes, and other customized applications available in a stand-alone, mobile device. I started out with the Palm Pilot Professional and upgraded through a series of devices up to the Palm VII, which had built-in wireless communication for sending and receiving email.

The Palm Pilot built upon the less than successful experiences of the Psion and the Newton. It did not attempt to become a computer, as such, like the HP 200LX. With the introduction of the Trio line, the Palm entered into the realm of the smartphone, which will be dealt with in a later post..  GLB

    

“The press should be not only a collective propagandist and a collective agitator, but also a collective organizer of the masses.”
— Vladimir Lenin

“A first-rate Organizer is never in a hurry. He is never late. He always keeps up his sleeve a margin for the unexpected.”
— Arnold Bennett

“Broadcasters are storytellers, newspapers are fact-gatherers and organizers of information and news magazines are kind of a hybrid of both.”
— Everette E. Dennis

“Ellington never graduated from high school, so when you speak about his success as a musician, his success as a businessman, his success as an organizer, the city was his tutor.”
— Ed Smith

“It was very last minute. The plan originally was to come early and play doubles and take it easy for the Open. When I was told I got the wild card I practically kissed (the organizer).”
— Meghann Shaughnessy

“I always considered myself being an organizer. I’m very good at teaching singers, I’m very good at staging a show, to entertain people. But I never included myself. I never applied this to me as an artist.”
— Ike Turner

“When I played Bobby Fischer, my opponent fought against organizations – the television producers and the match organizers. But he never fought against me personally. I lost to Bobby before the match because he was already stronger than I. He won normally.”
— Boris Spassky

“We still have every expectation that we’ll be invited (to host) in the future. We’re making sure everything runs smoothly, … The best way to ensure a return is to make sure the organizers have a great experience, whether or not people say ‘Yes, that was fantastic!’ or ‘Miami again?”
— David Whitaker

History of Hand-Held Computers: Palm Pilot

Palm pilot 5000_eu Palm handhelds are Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) which run the Palm OS. Palm devices have evolved from handhelds to smartphones which run Palm OS, WebOS and Windows Mobile. This page describes the range of Palm devices, from the first generation of Palm machines known as the Pilot through to the latest models currently produced by Palm, Inc including their new Palm Centro line of consumer smartphones.

History

Pilot was the name of the first generation of personal digital assistants manufactured by Palm Computing in 1996 (then a division of U.S. Robotics).

The first two generations of PDAs from Palm were referred to as “PalmPilots“. Due to a trademark infringement lawsuit brought by the Pilot Pen Corporation, since 1998 handheld devices from Palm have been known as Palm Connected Organizers or more commonly as “Palms”. “PalmPilot” has entered the vernacular as a synonym for PDAs, regardless of the brand.

Palm_Graffiti_gestures The inventors of the Pilot were Jeff Hawkins, Donna Dubinsky, and Ed Colligan, who founded Palm Computing. The original purpose of this company was to create handwriting recognition software for other devices, named Graffiti, but their research convinced them they could create better hardware as well. Before starting development of the Pilot, Hawkins is said to have carried a block of wood, the size of the potential Pilot, in his pocket for a week. Palm was widely perceived to have benefited from the notable if ill-fated earlier attempts to create a popular handheld computing platform by Go Corporation and Apple Computer.

The first Palms, the Pilot 1000 and Pilot 5000, had no infrared port, backlight, or flash memory, but did have a serial communications port. Their RAM size was 128 kB and 512 kB respectively, and they used version 1 of Palm OS. Later, it became possible to upgrade the Pilot 1000 or 5000′s internals to up to 1 MB of internal RAM. This was done with the purchase of an upgrade module sold by Palm, and the replacement of some internal hardware components. Originally, it was conceived that all Palm PDAs were to be hardware-upgradeable to an extent, but ultimately, this capability gave way to external memory slots and firmware-upgradeable flash memory after the Palm III series.

The next couple of Palms, called PalmPilot Personal and PalmPilot Professional, had a backlight, but still no infrared port or flash memory. Their RAM size was 512 kB and 1024 kB respectively. They used the more advanced version 2 of the Palm OS.

Palm IIIc-100_0275 Palm III, and all the following Palms, did not have the word “Pilot” in their name due to legal disputes. (“Pilot” was, and still is, a registered trademark for pens.) Palm III had an IR port, backlight, and flash memory. The latter allowed to upgrade Palm OS, or, with some external applications, to store programs or data in flash memory. It ran on two standard AAA batteries. It was able to retain enough energy for 10–15 minutes to prevent data erasure during battery replacement. It had 2 Megabytes of memory, large at the time, and used Palm OS 3. (Palm also produced an upgrade card for the Pilot series, which made them functionally equivalent to a Palm III.)

Meanwhile, with Palm Computing now a subsidiary of 3Com, the founders felt they had insufficient control over the development of the Palm product. As a result, they left 3Com and founded Handspring in June 1998. When they left Palm, Hawkins secured a license for the Palm OS for Handspring, and the company became the first Palm OS licensee. Handspring went on to produce the Handspring Visor, a clone of the Palm handhelds that included a hardware expansion slot (early Palm devices also had a hardware expansion slot, however this was for device upgrade purposes, not peripherals) and used slightly modified software.

My_T5 The next versions of Palm used Palm OS 3.1. These included Palm IIIx with 4 Megabytes of memory, Palm IIIe without flash memory or hardware expansion slot (and available for cheaper price), Palm V with 2 Megabytes of memory, and Palm Vx with 8 Megabytes of memory.

Palm VII had wireless connection to some Internet services, but this connection worked only within USA. It used Palm OS 3.2.

Palm IIIc was the first Palm handheld with color screen. It used Palm OS 3.5 which provided extensive tools for writing color applications.

Some of these newer handhelds, for example Palm V, used internal rechargeable batteries. Later this feature became standard for all Palms.

Palm handhelds initially ran on the popular DragonBall processors, a Motorola 68000 derivate. More recent models are using a variation of the popular ARM architecture (usually referred to by the Intel Xscale brand name). This is a class of RISC microprocessors that is widely used in mobile devices and embedded systems, and its design was influenced strongly by a popular 1970s/1980s CPU, the MOS Technology 6502.

Palm Computing was spun off into its own company (called Palm Incorporated) in 2000. Handspring later merged with Palm to form palmOne in 2003 when Palm Inc. split into companies based upon selling hardware (palmOne) and the software (PalmSource). In 2005, palmOne acquired the full rights to the Palm name by purchasing the shared rights PalmSource owned and changed names back to Palm again. PalmSource was acquired by ACCESS Systems in 2005, which subsequently sold the Palm OS source code back to Palm, Inc. in December, 2006.

Treo700p Palm handhelds continue to advance, including the ability to access hard drives on computers via USB cables, and are beginning to merge with smartphones. The “Treo 700w” is one of the latest offering that combines a Palm handheld with mobile phone, e-mail, SMS, and instant messaging. It is the first Palm device to use Windows Mobile instead of Palm OS. It is widely expected that Palm handhelds as a PDA-only device will disappear as multi-function Palm handhelds like the Treo 650 decline in price. Multi function devices include several different abilities in the same package such as: an MP3 player, a camera, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or several other options. The Treo 650+ series is a multi-functioning series, packing in a camera,MP3,Bluetooth,and a phone. The Zire 71 and 72 are examples of this also. In 2007 Palm released the Palm Centro, a consumer-oriented smartphone running the Palm OS. It took a step away from the familiar Treo smartphone by making it thinner and changing the overall appearance of it. The Centro is a very successful smartphone as it combines many features with a lower price. Since then, Palm has also released the Palm Treo 500v, a similar device to the Centro which is also directed at the consumer market. Palm’s newest offering, the “Foleo”, was cancelled before being publicly available.

Palm OS

Palm OS (also known as Garnet OS) is a mobile operating system initially developed by Palm, Inc. for personal digital assistants (PDAs) in 1996. Palm OS is designed for ease of use with a touchscreen-based graphical user interface. It is provided with a suite of basic applications for personal information management. Later versions of the OS have been extended to support smartphones. Several other licensees have manufactured devices powered by Palm OS.

Following Palm’s purchase of the Palm trademark, the currently licensed version from ACCESS was renamed Garnet OS. In 2007, ACCESS introduced the successor to Garnet OS, called Access Linux Platform and in 2009, the main licensee of Palm OS, Palm, Inc., switched from Palm OS to webOS for their forthcoming devices.

OS overview

Palm OS is a proprietary mobile operating system. Designed in 1996 for Palm Computing, Inc.’s new Pilot PDA, it has been implemented on a wide array of mobile devices, including smartphones, wrist watches, handheld gaming consoles, barcode readers and GPS devices.

Palm OS versions earlier than 5.0 run on Motorola/Freescale DragonBall processors. From version 5.0 onwards, Palm OS runs on ARM architecture-based processors.

The key features of the current Palm OS Garnet are:

  • Simple, single-tasking environment to allow launching of full screen applications with a basic, common GUI set
  • Monochrome or color screens with resolutions up to 480×320 pixel
  • Handwriting recognition input system called Graffiti 2
  • HotSync technology for data synchronization with desktop computers
  • Sound playback and record capabilities
  • Simple security model: Device can be locked by password, arbitrary application records can be made private
  • TCP/IP network access
  • Serial port/USB, Infrared, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi connections
  • Expansion memory card support
  • Defined standard data format for personal information management applications to store calendar, address, task and note entries, accessible by third-party applications.

Included with the OS is also a set of standard applications, with the most relevant ones for the four mentioned PIM operations.

Modernization

For several years PalmSource had been attempting to create a modern successor for Palm OS 5 and have licensees implement it. Although PalmSource shipped Palm OS Cobalt 6.0 to licensees in January 2004, none adopted it for release devices. PalmSource made major improvements to Palm OS Cobalt with the release of Palm OS Cobalt 6.1 in September 2004 to please licensees, but even the new version did not lead to production devices.

In December 2004, PalmSource announced a new OS strategy. With the acquisition of the mobile phone software company China Mobilesoft, PalmSource planned to port Palm OS on top of a Linux kernel, while still offering both Palm OS Garnet and Palm OS Cobalt. This strategy was revised in June 2005, when still no device with Palm OS Cobalt was announced. PalmSource announced it was halting all development efforts on any product not directly related to its future Linux based platform.

With the acquisition of PalmSource by ACCESS, Palm OS for Linux was changed to become the ACCESS Linux Platform which was first announced in February 2006. The initial versions of the platform and software development kits for the ACCESS Linux Platform were officially released in February 2007. As of November 2007, the ACCESS Linux Platform has yet to ship on devices, however development kits exists and public demonstrations have been showcased. The first smartphone to use the Access Linux Platform is the Edelweiss device by Emblaze Mobile that is scheduled for mid 2009.

Palm, Inc. the main licensee of Palm OS Garnet did not license ACCESS Linux Platform for their own devices. Instead, Palm developed another Linux-based operating system called Palm webOS. On February 11, 2009 Palm CEO Ed Colligan said there would be no additional Palm OS devices (excepting the Centro being released to other carriers). Palm is focusing on Palm webOS and Windows Mobile devices. On April 1, 2009 Palm announced the availability of a Palm OS emulator for its webOS.

References

Background and biographical information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Palm PDA… 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_Pilot

Wikipedia: Palm OS… 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_OS

Think Exist: Organizer Quotes…
http://thinkexist.com/search/searchQuotation.asp?search=Organizer

by Gerald Boerner

  

JerryPhoto_8x8_P1010031 Today we look at an event that ended a period of nightmares and division within these United States: the Civil War. The Army of the Potomac had defeated the Confederate forces under the leadership of Gen. Robert E. Lee. When Lee surrendered to Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at the Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865, we faced a crossroads.

How were we going to heal the breach that had separated the former enemies? Could there be a gracious victory? Could President Lincoln and his successors bring the two sides together? Well, there was healing. And it started with a simple act of respect and kindness, as described below in the account of Joshua Chamberlain below on the salute given to the surrendering Confederates — a badge of respect and honor.  GLB

    

“I cannot trust a man to control others who cannot control himself.”
— Robert E. Lee

“A true man of honor feels humbled himself when he cannot help humbling others.”
— Robert E. Lee

“I think it better to do right, even if we suffer in so doing, than to incur the reproach of our consciences and posterity.”
— Robert E. Lee

“Do your duty in all things. You cannot do more, you should never wish to do less.”
— Robert E. Lee

“Duty is the most sublime word in our language. Do your duty in all things. You cannot do more. You should never wish to do less.”
— Robert E. Lee

“Duty, then is the sublimest word in our language. Do your duty in all things. You cannot do more; you should never wish to do less.”
— Robert E. Lee

“Get correct views of life, and learn to see the world in its true light. It will enable you to live pleasantly, to do good, and, when summoned away, to leave without regret.”
— Robert E. Lee

“I have been up to see the Congress and they do not seem to be able to do anything except to eat peanuts and chew tobacco, while my army is starving.”
— Robert E. Lee

Battle of Appromattox Court House

McLean_House_parlor,_Appomattox_Court_House,_Virginia The Battle of Appomattox Court House, fought on the morning of April 9, 1865, was the final engagement of Confederate States Army General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia before it surrendered to the Union Army under Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, and one of the last battles of the American Civil War. Lee, having abandoned the Confederate capitol of Richmond, Virginia after the Siege of Petersburg, retreated west, hoping to join his army with the Confederate forces in North Carolina. His final stand was at Appomattox Court House, where he launched an attack to break through the Union force to his front, which he assumed consisted entirely of cavalry. When he realized that the cavalry was backed up by two corps of Union infantry, he had no choice but to surrender.

The signing of the surrender documents occurred in the parlor of the house owned by Wilmer McLean on the afternoon of April 9. On April 12, a formal ceremony marked the disbandment of the Army of Northern Virginia and the parole of its officers and men, effectively ending the Civil War.

Background

The final campaign for Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States of America, began when the Federal Army of the Potomac crossed the James River in June 1864. The armies under the command of Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant laid siege to Petersburg and Richmond, intending to cut Petersburg’s and Richmond’s supply lines and force the Confederates to evacuate. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee waited for an opportunity to leave the Petersburg lines, aware that the position was untenable, but Union troops made the first move. On April 1, 1865, Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan’s cavalry turned Lee’s flank at the Battle of Five Forks. The next day Grant’s army achieved a decisive breakthrough, effectively ending the Petersburg siege. With supply lines cut, Lee’s men abandoned the trenches they had held for ten months and evacuated on the night of 2nd to the 3rd of April.

Lee’s first objective was to reassemble and supply his men at Amelia Courthouse. His plan was to link up with Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s Army of Tennessee and go on the offensive after establishing defenses on the Roanoke River. When the troops arrived at Amelia on April 4, however, they found no provisions. Lee sent wagons out to the surrounding country to forage, but as a result lost a day’s worth of marching time. The army then headed west to Appomattox Station, where a supply train awaited him. Lee’s army was now composed of the cavalry corps and two small infantry corps.

En route to the station, on April 6 at Sayler’s Creek, nearly one fourth of the retreating Confederate army was cut off by Sheridan’s cavalry and elements of the II and VI Corps. Two Confederate divisions fought the VI Corps along the creek. The Confederates attacked but were driven back, and soon after the Union cavalry cut through the right of the Confederate lines. Most of the 7,700 Confederates surrendered, including Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell and eight other generals.[3] The delay prevented Lee from reaching the station by late afternoon on April 8, allowing Sheridan to reach the station that evening, where he captured Lee’s supplies and obstructed his path.

Following the minor battles of Cumberland Church and High Bridge, on April 7 Grant sent a note to Lee suggesting that it was time to surrender the Army of Northern Virginia. In a return note, Lee refused the request, but asked Grant what terms he had in mind. On April 8, Union cavalry under Brig. Gen. George Armstrong Custer captured and burned three supply trains waiting for Lee’s army at the Battle of Appomattox Station. Now both the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the James were converging on Appomattox.

With his supplies at Appomattox destroyed, Lee now looked west, to the railway at Lynchburg, where more supplies awaited him. While the Union Army was closing in on Lee, all that lay between Lee and Lynchburg was Union cavalry. Lee hoped to break through the cavalry before infantry arrived. He sent a note to Grant saying that he did not wish to surrender his army just yet but was willing to discuss how Grant’s terms would affect the Confederacy. Grant, with a throbbing headache, stated that “It looks as if Lee still means to fight.” The Union infantry was close, but the only unit near enough to support Sheridan’s cavalry was Maj. Gen. John Gibbon’s XXIV Corps of the Army of the James. This corps traveled 30 miles (50 km) in 21 hours to reach the cavalry. Maj. Gen. Edward O. C. Ord, commander of the Army of the James, arrived with the XXIV Corps around 4:00 a.m. while the V Corps of the Army of the Potomac was close behind. Sheridan deployed three divisions of cavalry along a low ridge to the southwest of Appomattox Court House.

April 9

McLean_House,_Appomattox_Court_House,_Virginia The reconstructed McLean House
(brick house on right)

At dawn on April 9, the Confederate Second Corps under Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon attacked Sheridan’s cavalry and quickly forced back the first line under Brevet Brig. Gen. Charles H. Smith. The next line, held by Brig. Gens. Ranald S. Mackenzie and George Crook, slowed the Confederate advance. Gordon’s troops charged through the Union lines and took the ridge, but as they reached the crest they saw the entire Union XXIV Corps in line of battle with the Union V Corps to their right. Lee’s cavalry saw these Union forces and immediately withdrew and rode off towards Lynchburg. Ord’s troops began advancing against Gordon’s corps while the Union II Corps began moving against Lt. Gen. James Longstreet’s corps to the northeast. Colonel Charles Venable of Lee’s staff rode in at this time and asked for an assessment, and Gordon gave him a reply he knew Lee did not want to hear: “Tell General Lee I have fought my corps to a frazzle, and I fear I can do nothing unless I am heavily supported by Longstreet’s corps.” Upon hearing it Lee finally stated the inevitable: “Then there is nothing left for me to do but to go and see General Grant and I would rather die a thousand deaths.”

Many of Lee’s officers, including Longstreet, agreed that surrendering the army was the only option left. The only notable officer opposed to surrender was Longstreet’s chief of artillery, Brig. Gen. Edward Porter Alexander, who predicted that if Lee surrendered then “every other [Confederate] army will follow suit.”

Grant received Lee’s first letter on the morning of April 9 as he was traveling to meet Sheridan. Grant recalled his migraine seemed to disappear when he read Lee’s letter, and he handed it to his assistant Rawlins to read aloud before composing his reply:

General, Your note of this date is but this moment, 11:50 A.M. rec’d., in consequence of my having passed from the Richmond and Lynchburg road. I am at this writing about four miles West of Walker’s Church and will push forward to the front for the purpose of meeting you. Notice sent to me on this road where you wish the interview to take place.

Grant’s response was remarkable in that it let the defeated Lee choose the place of his surrender. Lee received the reply within an hour and dispatched an aide, Charles Marshall, to find a suitable location for the occasion. Marshall scrutinized Appomattox Court House, a small village of roughly twenty buildings that served as a waystation for travelers on the Richmond-Lynchburg Stage Road.[11] Marshall rejected the first house he saw as too dilapidated, instead settling on the 1848 brick home of Wilmer McLean. McLean had lived near Manassas Junction during the First Battle of Bull Run, and had retired to Appomattox to escape the war.

At 8:00 a.m., Lee rode out to meet Grant, accompanied by three of his aides. With gunshots still being heard on Gordon’s front and Union skirmishers still advancing on Longstreet’s front, Lee received a message from Grant. After several hours of correspondence between Grant and Lee, a cease-fire was enacted and Grant received Lee’s request to discuss surrender terms.

Surrender

Appomattox_courthouse Federal soldiers at the
courthouse, April 1865

Dressed in an immaculate uniform, Lee waited for Grant to arrive. Grant, whose headache had ended when he received Lee’s note, arrived in a mud-spattered uniform—a government-issue flannel shirt with trousers tucked into muddy boots, no sidearms, and with only his tarnished shoulder straps showing his rank. It was the first time the two men had seen each other face-to-face in almost two decades. Suddenly overcome with sadness, Grant found it hard to get to the point of the meeting and instead the two generals briefly discussed a previous encounter during the Mexican-American War. Lee brought the attention back to the issue at hand, and Grant offered the same terms he had before:

In accordance with the substance of my letter to you of the 8th inst., I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of N. Va. on the following terms, to wit: Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate. One copy to be given to an officer designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate. The officers to give their individual paroles not to take up arms against the Government of the United States until properly exchanged, and each company or regimental commander sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, artillery and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned over to the officer appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to their homes, not to be disturbed by United States authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they may reside.

Surrender_flag_of_the_Civil_War_by_Matthew_Bisanz Flag used by the Confederacy
to surrender

The terms were as generous as Lee could hope for; his men would not be imprisoned or prosecuted for treason. In addition to his terms, Grant also allowed the defeated men to take home their horses and mules to carry out the spring planting and provided Lee with a supply of food rations for his starving army; Lee said it would have a very happy effect among the men and do much toward reconciling the country. The terms of the surrender were recorded in a document completed around 4 p.m., April 9. As Lee left the house and rode away, Grant’s men began cheering in celebration, but Grant ordered an immediate stop. “I at once sent word, however, to have it stopped,” he said. “The Confederates were now our countrymen, and we did not want to exult over their downfall.”

On April 10, Lee gave his farewell address to his army. The same day a six-man commission gathered to discuss a formal ceremony of surrender, even though no Confederate officer wished to go through with such an event. Brig. Gen. Joshua L. Chamberlain was the Union officer selected to lead the ceremony, and later he reflected on what he witnessed on April 12, 1865, and wrote a moving tribute:

The momentous meaning of this occasion impressed me deeply. I resolved to mark it by some token of recognition, which could be no other than a salute of arms. Well aware of the responsibility assumed, and of the criticisms that would follow, as the sequel proved, nothing of that kind could move me in the least. The act could be defended, if needful, by the suggestion that such a salute was not to the cause for which the flag of the Confederacy stood, but to its going down before the flag of the Union. My main reason, however, was one for which I sought no authority nor asked forgiveness. Before us in proud humiliation stood the embodiment of manhood: men whom neither toils and sufferings, nor the fact of death, nor disaster, nor hopelessness could bend from their resolve; standing before us now, thin, worn, and famished, but erect, and with eyes looking level into ours, waking memories that bound us together as no other bond;—was not such manhood to be welcomed back into a Union so tested and assured?

Instructions had been given; and when the head of each division column comes opposite our group, our bugle sounds the signal and instantly our whole line from right to left, regiment by regiment in succession, gives the soldier’s salutation, from the “order arms” to the old “carry”—the marching salute. Gordon at the head of the column, riding with heavy spirit and downcast face, catches the sound of shifting arms, looks up, and, taking the meaning, wheels superbly, making with himself and his horse one uplifted figure, with profound salutation as he drops the point of his sword to the boot toe; then facing to his own command, gives word for his successive brigades to pass us with the same position of the manual — honor answering honor. On our part not a sound of trumpet more, nor roll of drum; not a cheer, nor word nor whisper of vain-glorying, nor motion of man standing again at the order, but an awed stillness rather, and breath-holding, as if it were the passing of the dead!
— Joshua L. Chamberlain, Passing of the Armies, pp. 260-61

That day, 27,805 Confederate soldiers passed by and stacked their arms.

Aftermath

While Meade reportedly shouted that “it’s all over” upon hearing the surrender was signed, Grant was aware that only a single army had given up. Roughly 175,000 Confederates remained in the field. Many of these were scattered throughout the South in garrisons while the rest were concentrated in three major Confederate commands. Just as Porter Alexander had predicted, it was only a matter of time before the other Confederate armies began to surrender. As news spread of Lee’s surrender, other Confederate commanders realized that the strength of the Confederacy was fading, and decided to lay down their own arms. Joseph E. Johnston’s army in North Carolina, the most threatening of the remaining Confederate armies, surrendered to Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman on April 26. General Edmund Kirby Smith surrendered the Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department in May and Brig. Gen. Stand Watie surrendered the last sizable organized Confederate force on June 23, 1865.

There were several more small battles after the surrender, with the Battle of Palmito Ranch commonly regarded as the final military action of the Confederacy.

Lee never forgot Grant’s magnanimity during the surrender, and for the rest of his life would not tolerate an unkind word about Grant in his presence. Likewise, General Gordon cherished Chamberlain’s simple act of saluting his surrendered army, calling Chamberlain “one of the knightliest soldiers of the Federal army.”

References

Other Events on this Day:

  • In 1682…
    Sieur de La Salle claims the Mississippi River valley for France.
  • In 1865…
    Robert E. Lee surrenders his Confederate army to Ulysses S. Grant
    .
  • In 1939…
    Black singer Marian Anderson performs for 75,000 people at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., after her concert at Constitution Hall is cancelled because of her race.
  • In 1942…
    Seventy-five thousand starving American and Filipino defenders on the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines are surrendered to the Japanese.
  • In 2003…
    In Baghdad, Iraqis and U.S. soldiers celebrate the fall of Saddam Hussein by toppling a giant statue of the dictator.

Dates and events based on:

William J. Bennett and John Cribb, (2008) The American Patriot’s Almanac Daily Readings on America. (Kindle Edition)

Background information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Battle of Appromattox Court House… 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Appomattox_Court_House

Brainy Quote: Robert E. Lee Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/r/robert_e_lee.html