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Prof. Boerner's Explorations

Thoughts and Essays that explore the world of Technology, Computers, Photography, History and Family.


Archive for April, 2011
Edited by Gerald Boerner



JerryPhotoI first read Anne Frank’s diary while taking second year German in college. This was the German version! I believe that this made the impact of this reading even more meaningful. As the German phrases, with their precision of meaning, yielded their richness of meaning. When this is coupled with the fact that the diary was written by a 15 year old girl hiding from the Nazis in occupied Amsterdam..

One can only wonder what she was going through each day. But wait! we do know what she was thinking because she recorded it in here diary; that diary was retrieved and revealed to the world by her father returned from Auschwitz after the war. He then shared this intimate account of little Anne’s experience in that small set of attic rooms.

Annelies Marie "Anne" Frank (12 June 1929 in Frankfurt am Main – early March 1945 in Bergen Belsen) is one of the most renowned and most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Acknowledged for the quality of her writing, her diary has become one of the world’s most widely read books, and has been the basis for several plays and films.


The Frank family moved from Germany to Amsterdam in 1933, the year the Nazis gained control over Germany. By the beginning of 1940, they were trapped in Amsterdam by the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. As persecutions of the Jewish population increased in July 1942, the family went into hiding in the hidden rooms of Anne’s father, Otto Frank’s, office building. After two years, the group was betrayed and transported to concentration camps. Anne Frank and her sister, Margot, were eventually transferred to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they both died of typhus in March 1945.

We should be thankful for Anne Frank’s sharing of her observations of life of a Jewish Girl during the Nazi terror. So, let’s get started on today’s exploration… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4089 Words ]


Quotations Related to ANNE FRANK:


“Think of all the beauty still left around you and be happy.”
— Anne Frank

“Despite everything, I believe that people are really good at heart.”
— Anne Frank

“Laziness may appear attractive, but work gives satisfaction.”
— Anne Frank

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner



JerryPhotoThe Ashmun Institute was the first of a group of historically colleges and universities for African American students. This school was later renamed Lincoln Institute; later yet it became Lincoln University and was part of the University of Pennsylvania system. These schools were designed to provide African Americans educational opportunities denied the in the segregated south.

Other noteworthy examples from this group include Bethune-Cookman University and the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (later Tuskegee University). These schools have provided this country’s African American youth with an integrated education in the arts and scientists.


Lincoln University (LU) is the United States’ first degree-granting historically black university. It is located near the town of Oxford in southern Chester County, Pennsylvania. The university also hosts a Center for Graduate Studies in the City of Philadelphia. Lincoln University provides undergraduate and graduate coursework to approximately 2,500 students. As former president Dr. Horace Mann Bond noted in his book Education for Freedom: A History of Lincoln University, Pennsylvania, with the college’s founding in 1854, "This was the first institution founded anywhere in the world to provide a higher education in the arts and sciences for youth of African descent."

Lincoln University has an impressive list of notable alumni which includes: U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall; Harlem Renaissance poet, Langston Hughes; musical legend, Cab Calloway; the first President of Nigeria, Nnamdi Azikiwe; the first President of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah; song artist and activist, Gil Scott-Heron; Tony Award winning actor, Roscoe Lee Browne; and architect of the debate team portrayed in the film, The Great Debaters, Melvin B. Tolson.

We should be proud of these schools and continue to provide support. So, let’s get started on today’s exploration…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3590 Words ]


Quotations Related to RIC KELLER:


“Millions of Americans each year use our national forests to go hiking, fishing, hunting, camping, swimming, horseback riding, and canoeing.”
— Ric Keller

“Illegal immigration costs taxpayers $45 billion a year in health care, education, and incarceration expenses.”
— Ric Keller

“On my recent trip to the Mexico border, Border Patrol agents in California told me they have arrested the same coyotes 20 times, but they are not prosecuted.”
— Ric Keller

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner



The U.S. and Canada share the longest border between two countries anywhere in the world. More remarkably, the movement across this border is relativity unfettered by military checkpoints. While this status required many growing pains, once the actual borders were established, they have stood up well to the test of time.

Each country remains independent and has adopted it’s own distinctive cultures. A major step in this process took place in 1817 when the Great Lakes and Lake Champaign became demilitarized. This was a significant step since forts were maintained during both the Revolutionary Was and the War of 1812; these lakes were also the sites of some major naval battles.


The Rush-Bagot Treaty was a treaty between the United States and Britain ratified by the United States Senate on April 16, 1818. The treaty provided for a large demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained. The treaty stipulated that the United States and British North America could each maintain one military vessel (no more than 100 tons burden) as well as one cannon (no more than eighteen pounds) on Lake Ontario and Lake Champlain. The remaining Great Lakes permitted the United States and British North America to keep two military vessels "of like burden" on the waters armed with "like force". The treaty, and the separate Treaty of 1818, laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the U.S. and British North America.

Now let’s get on with our exploration...  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 2947 Words ]


Quotations Related to BORDERS:


“When goods do not cross borders, soldiers will.”
— Frederic Bastiat

“We can control our borders, we just choose not too.”
— Tom Tancredo

“These are our borders, and we have to secure our borders.”
— Robert Brady

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner



JerryPhotoBabe Ruth! That’s a name that elicits visions of excitement from most American boys growing up during the 20th century. “The Bambino.” “The Sultan of Swat.” The man with whom the term Home Run was almost synonymous. He was every baseball players hero. When he left the Boston Red Sox, he left the “curse of the Bambino” with that club. When he joined the Yankees and made them a dynasty. Yankee became the “House that Ruth Built.” He changed the sport forever.

Babe Ruth set the single season and lifetime Home Run standard that held for decades. Unfortunately, I was never able to see him play in person, but remained in awe of his performance none the less. In 1947 he was honored one last time at Yankee Stadium with “Babe Ruth Day”.


On April 27, 1947, the Yankees held a ceremony at Yankee Stadium. Despite his health problems, Ruth was able to attend "Babe Ruth Day". Ruth spoke to a capacity crowd of more than 60,000, including many American Legion youth baseball players. Although lacking a specific memorable comment like Gehrig’s "Luckiest man" speech, Ruth spoke from the heart, of his enthusiasm for the game of baseball and in support of the youth playing the game.

Later, Ruth started the Babe Ruth Foundation, a charity for disadvantaged children. Another Babe Ruth Day held at Yankee Stadium in September 1947 helped to raise money for this charity.

So let’s jump into today’s exploration of the Baseball career of Babe Ruth that earned him that special dai in in 1947...  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4155 Words ]


Quotations Related to BABE RUTH:


Pick out a good one and sock it!.”
— Babe Ruth

“What the hell has Hoover got to do with it? Besides, I had a better year than he did.”
— Babe Ruth

Yes, he’s a prick, but he sure can hit. God Almighty, that man can hit!
— Babe Ruth (about Ty Cobb)

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner



JerryPhoto_thumb2As so often happens, two scientists/researchers come across very similar discoveries at about the same time. And when those concerned are more entrepreneurial and emotionally involved, this leads to contention and fighting. In the case of today’s exploration of the invention, the integrated circuit, this contention did not occur. The two principals, Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby shared the honor and were happy to be credited as co-founders of the integrated circuit.

Kilby, the first to create this complex chip was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000 for his invention. This chip was the breakthrough technology that has enabled the micro computer an untold hand held devices in use today.


Wikipedia summarizes this technology as:

“An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as IC, chip, and microchip) is an electronic circuit manufactured by diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material.

“Integrated circuits are used in virtually all electronic equipment today and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, cellular phones, and other digital appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the low cost of production of integrated circuits.”

So let’s get started our exploration of the invention and patenting of the integrated circuit…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3419 Words ]


Quotations Related to SEMICONDUCTOR:


“We have been a fabless semiconductor company for a number of years now.”
— David Milne

“My project was radiation damage of Si and Ge by energetic electrons, critical for the use of the recently developed semiconductor devices for applications in outer space.”
— Walter Kohn

“It was at Bell Labs that I first made direct contact with real semiconductor experts and thus began to fully understand what amazing materials they were and what they could do.”
— Robert B. Laughlin

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner



JerryPhotoNorth America’s Great Lakes represent one of the largest inland, fresh water set of lakes found anywhere on earth. They are essentially large inland seas that are navigable by large ships carrying products of commerce. In many cases, canals have been constructed to allow shipping traffic between adjacent lakes. The Erie Canal was built in the early 19th century to create a route from Albany, New York, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, New York, at Lake Erie, completing a navigable water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes.

In 1959 the Saint Lawrence Seaway opened to create a route from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean via the route of the St. Lawrence River. To allow oceangoing ships to make this trip, a series of canals with locks to adjust the elevation of the vessels were required. Wikipedia describes it as:

“The Saint Lawrence Seaway (St. Lawrence Seaway), is the common name for a system of locks, canals and channels that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the North American Great Lakes, as far as Lake Superior. Legally it extends from Montreal to Lake Erie, including the Welland Canal. The seaway is named after the Saint Lawrence River, which it follows from Lake Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean. This section of the seaway is not a continuous canal, but rather comprises stretches of navigable channels within the river, a number of locks, as well as canals made to bypass rapids and dams in the waterway. A number of locks are managed by the Canadian Saint Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation and others by the U.S. Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation.”


Queen Elizabeth and President Eisenhower presided over the ceremonies of this bi-national project. It put the Erie Canal out of business and affected many towns along the route. But it opened up ports within the Great Lakes to the oceangoing commerce.

So, let’s great started on our exploration of today’s topic…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4180 Words ]


Quotations Related to CANALS:


“Government is like a baby. An alimentary canal with a big appetite at one end and no sense of responsibility at the other.”
— Ronald Reagan

“I took the Canal Zone and let Congress debate; and while the debate goes on, the canal does also.”
— Theodore Roosevelt

“In my own area, Hood Canal, we are working with the USGS on dealing with this oxygenation problem.”
— Norm Dicks

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner



I captured this image at the Mission Inn in Riverside, CA, on a cloudy, rainy day in the spring. We need to keep our eyes on the empty cross — Christ is not still on it, but he is risen. Let us keep our eyes on our living, loving Savior. He walks with us daily and speaks to us through the Bible and his creation, Nature. Let us open our mind’s eyes to see the wonderful world that have been given; let us open our awareness to the guidance of Christ in our daily lives.  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3000 Words ]


Easter Thought… “He is Risen!”



Photo by Gerald L. Boerner


On this special day, we might keep in mind the following scriptures…

Guards are Posted at the Tomb

The next day-on the first day after the Passover ceremonies-the leading priests and Pharisees went to see Pilate. They told him, "Sir, we remember what that deceiver once said while he was still alive: ‘After three days I will be raised from the dead.’ So we request that you seal the tomb until the third day. This will prevent his disciples from coming and stealing the body and then telling everyone that he came back to life! If that happens, we’ll be worse off then we were at first." Pilate replied, "Take guards and secure it the best you can." So they sealed the tomb and posted the guards to protect it.

Jesus Rises from the Dead FROM MATTHEW 28:1-7 (NLT)

Early on Sunday morning, as the new day was dawning, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went out to see the tomb. Suddenly there was a great earthquake, because an angel of the Lord came down from heaven and rolled aside the stone and sat on it. His face shone like lightning, and his clothing was as white as snow. The guards shook with fear when they saw him, and they fell into a dead faint. Then the angel spoke to the women. "Don’t be afraid!" he said. "I know you are looking for Jesus, who was crucified. He isn’t here! He has been raised from the dead, just as he said would happen. Come, see where his body was lying. And now go quickly and tell his disciples he has been raised from the dead, and he is going ahead of you to Galilee. You will see him there. Remember, I have told you."

Jesus Appears to the Women FROM MATTHEW 28:8-10 (NLT)

The women ran quickly from the tomb. They were very frightened but also filled with great joy, and they rushed to find the disciples to give them the angel’s message. And as they went, Jesus met them. "Greetings!" he said. And they ran to him, held his feet, and worshiped him. The Jesus said to them, "Don’t be afraid! Go tell my brothers to leave for Galilee, and they will see me there."



Please take time to further explore more about Easter Day, Mission Inn,
and “He is Risen!”, Passover
by accessing the Wikipedia articles referenced
below. In most cases, the text in the body of this post has been selectively
excerpted from the articles; footnotes and hyperlinks have been removed
for readability




Background information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Priesthill Zion Methodist Church: Easter Scripture…


Other Posts on related Topics:

Prof. Boerner’s Exploration: Easter Thought… “He is Risen!”…

Edited by Gerald Boerner



JerryPhotoThe Lord is Risen… Happy Easter to all.

We now look at the culmination of Holy Week: Easter Sunday. While not part of Holy Week as such, it is the culmination of the celebration of the past several days. On Good Friday, Christ is betrayed, tried and crucified. His dead body was placed in a new tomb (“Whited Sepulchre”) for three days. On the third day Mary Magdalene went to watch over the tomb and found the stone rolled away from the entrance and the tomb empty. Christ was no longer dead, but had been resurrected. He had paid for mankind’s sins with his life and rose again to overcome death.

Today, we continue to celebrate this event in many ways, in many countries. Each country has made this special time personal to that country. Above all, man continues to worship a risen Christ and walk with Him as his children.


Easter is the central religious feast in the Christian liturgical year. According to Christian scripture, Jesus was resurrected from the dead on the third day after his crucifixion. Some Christians celebrate this resurrection on Easter Day or Easter Sunday (also Resurrection Day or Resurrection Sunday), two days after Good Friday and three days after Maundy Thursday. The chronology of his death and resurrection is variously interpreted to be between AD 26 and AD 36. Easter also refers to the season of the church year called Eastertide or the Easter Season. Traditionally the Easter Season lasted for the forty days from Easter Day until Ascension Day but now officially lasts for the fifty days until Pentecost. The first week of the Easter Season is known as Easter Week or the Octave of Easter. Easter also marks the end of Lent, a season of fasting, prayer, and penance.

Easter is a moveable feast, meaning it is not fixed in relation to the civil calendar. The First Council of Nicaea (325) established the date of Easter as the first Sunday after the full moon (the Paschal Full Moon) following the vernal equinox. Ecclesiastically, the equinox is reckoned to be on March 21 (regardless of the astronomically correct date), and the "Full Moon" is not necessarily the astronomically correct date. The date of Easter therefore varies between March 22 and April 25. Eastern Christianity bases its calculations on the Julian Calendar whose March 21 corresponds, during the twenty-first century, to April 3 in the Gregorian Calendar, in which calendar their celebration of Easter therefore varies between April 4 and May 8.

So, let’s get on with our exploration…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3246 Words ]


Quotations Related to EASTER:


“To a Christian, Easter Sunday means everything, when we celebrate the resurrection of Jesus Christ.”
— Bernhard Langer

“Christ appeared alive on several occasions after the cataclysmic events of that first Easter.”
— Josh McDowell

“My mom used to say that Greek Easter was later because then you get stuff cheaper.”
— Amy Sedaris

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner



JerryPhotoAll that is happening between northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland during the past fifty years is really a continuation of a struggle between the British and Irish over the past several centuries. This is a conflict not only over religion, but it includes differences in culture as well. It is a conflict not that different than that found between the Jewish State and the Palestinians in the middle east.

Let’s get started wit this exploration…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4000 Words ]


Quotations Related to IRISH:


“Being Irish is very much a part of who I am. I take it everywhere with me.”
— Colin Farrell

“Being Irish was a big thing for me, particularly growing up in Chicago.”
— Lara Flynn Boyle

“Even when they have nothing, the Irish emit a kind of happiness, a joy.”
— Fiona Shaw

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner



JerryPhotoToday we switch our consideration from the observation of Holy Week from that of the Christian celebrations to that of the Jewish celebration of Passover. While Passover is more than a single day, it is the basis upon which the Christian celebration is founded. Passover reflects the celebration of the sparing of Jewish firstborn sons during the period of the Exodus from Egypt. So, take time to read this posting for a better appreciation of the real meaning of Easter.

Passover is a Jewish and Samaritan holy day and festival commemorating the biblical event of Hebrews’ escape from enslavement in Egypt.

Passover is one of the most widely observed Jewish holidays (Yom Tov), and is commemorated by many affiliated and nonaffiliated Jews alike as a time to contemplate the endurance of the Jewish people throughout history.


Passover begins on the 15th day of the month of Nisan (equivalent to March and April in Gregorian calendar), the first month of the Hebrew calendar’s festival year according to the Hebrew Bible.

In the narrative of the Exodus, the Bible tells that God inflicted ten plagues upon the Egyptians before Pharaoh would release his Hebrew slaves, with the tenth plague being the killing of every firstborn male, from the Pharaoh’s son to the firstborn of the dungeon captive, to the firstborn of cattle. The Hebrews were instructed to mark the doorposts of their homes with the blood of a spring lamb and, upon seeing this, the spirit of the Lord passed over these homes, hence the term "passover". When Pharaoh freed the Hebrews, it is said that they left in such a hurry that they could not wait for bread to rise. In commemoration, for the duration of Passover no leavened bread is eaten, for which reason it is called "The Festival of the Unleavened Bread". Matza (flat unleavened bread) is the primary symbol of the holiday.

But enough background. Let’s rake a closer look at today’s exploration…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3702 Words ]


Quotations Related to PASSOVER:


“And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.”
— Bible quotes

“And the Jews’ passover was nigh at hand: and many went out of the country up to Jerusalem before the passover, to purify themselves.”
— Bible quotes

“Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover.”
— Bible quotes

continue reading…