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Archive for January, 2012

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumb_thumb_I remember that day back in 1986, when we were watching the launch Christa McAuliffe, the first educator, into space. Then we watched in horror and unbelief when the Challenger exploded a little over a minute into the flight. This was a sobering time and a time for national mourning, not dissimilar to the aftermath of the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Jr., Robert Kennedy, and others. We were all in pain, we all grieved. But today, let’s look back upon the space program and the brave men and women who participated both as astronauts and in the ground crew. We take our “hats” off and thank them for their bravery and willingness to serve on the forefront of our country’s quest of space.

Challenger_flight_51l_crew

In recent history we have witnessed first-hand the explosion shortly after clearing the launch pad of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986. This event sent shutters through our bodies in a fashion similar to that that most of us did as we watched Neil Armstrong take those first steps on the moon in 1969. But this time, the reaction was not from the joyful sharing of an event of great import for all mankind, it came from the realization that the entire Challenger crew perished in the explosion. In just a few seconds, we saw the lift-off of the shuttle from the launch pad followed by a puff of white smoke that could be seen when the shuttle broke apart, with different large chunks going in different directions.

At the time, I was working for a school district and witnessed the event “real time,” not on video tape on the evening news. All educators were thrilled by the fact that one of our own, a high school teacher from New England, Christa McAuliffe, was travelling into space. She would be the first civilian to make such a voyage. She was prepared to carry out a number of educational experiments during her time in space and was being followed by schools across the country. But the voice of the TV commentator soon informed us that something terrible had happened a few seconds after launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

420-challenger-crew-1986_imgcache_rev1327533423147

Then we witnessed the debris from the shuttle fall from the sky. With that debris were the bodies of the seven shuttle astronauts. There was no escape. This incident resulted in a suspension of future shuttle flights until the cause of the accident had been determined and remedied. And it turned out that the cause was due to the failure of an O-Ring that cost just a few dollars. After this tragedy, both the equipment checks before launch and the launch procedures themselves were changed. A major cause of the O-Ring failure was the launch in the early morning hours in freezing weather. Ice had been an ever-present hazard to all launches from Cape Canaveral over the years; each crew breathed a sigh of relief when their vehicle had cleared the launch tower. Procedures were instituted that prevented launch until ice would no longer be a hazard.

We now will proceed to examine this event in history in more detail... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3472 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to (Space) Shuttle:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/shuttle.html ]

    

“I can remember in early elementary school when the Russians launched the first satellite. There was still so much unknown about space. People thought Mars was probably populated.”
— Christa McAuliffe

“Be strong and courageous. Do not be terrified. Do not be discouraged for the Lord your God will be with you wherever you go.”
— Rick Husband

“When you look at the stars and the galaxy, you feel you are not just from any particular piece of land, but from the solar system.”
— Laurel Clark

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis day through the past 150 years, recent history really, has witnessed a number of significant events. Starting with one major international event and four domestic events. The international event, this day, in 1886, witnessed a German patent being awarded to Karl Benz, a German engineer, for a three-wheeled, gasoline-powered vehicle — the “Motorwagen.” This was the first true automobile in the world. It did not really catch on until Benz’ wife made a 65 mile trip to visit her mother using the Motorwagen. She only had to stop at the Apotheke (Pharmacy) for fuel. She also had to visit a boot maker to put leather linings on the brakes, the first relining of a car’s brakes!

1885Benz

This initial model was enhanced to a four-wheeled vehicle once Benz worked out a steering mechanism for the front wheels. The luxury nameplate automobile, Mercedes–Benz, emerged from this humble motorized vehicle. Benz’ invention demonstrated that motorized transportation was feasible. As a result of this original vehicle, we now have paved highways, including the Autobahns in Germany and the Interstate Highway System in the United States. These highways have tied together a nation’s cities and expedited the mobility of the population. The use of the refined gasoline helped to revolutionize industry just like steam power did earlier; both power sources drove the industrial revolution. It’s hard to imagine what life would be like today if were were still traveling by horse and buggy!

An event that bridged the international and domestic scenes took place in 2002. President George W. Bush, in his State of the Union address to a joint session of Congress, labeled North Korea, Iran, and Iraq as the “Axis of Evil,” the main source of international terrorism. This was partially a response to the al-Qaeda-sponsored attack on the Twin Towers in New York City and the Pentagon in suburban Washington, D.C. After the end of the Cold War ushered in by the efforts of President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Premiere Mikhail Gorbachev in the early 1980s much of the major conflicts between the Soviets and the NATO were eliminated; this was not the end of world tensions since small terrorists groups sprung up to push for their own agendas. The major fear was that some of the rogue states, such as those identified by President George W. Bush, would gain access to nuclear devices and use them against the west. This “Axis of Evil” was thought to be a conduit for such access, especially since North Korea was known to have nuclear capability. It was feared that Iraq and Iran would gain that capability as well. In fact, one of the major arguments used by the junior Bush’s Administration to gain U.N. sanctions to invade Iraq in 2002 was just that — Iraq was thought to have WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction). The U.S., with only minor support of a few of our European allies, invaded both Afghanistan and Iraq on the pretense of searching for and destroying these al-Qaeda forces and WMD. But the underlying goal was to establish democratic republics in these Islamic countries WHETHER THE POPULATION WANTED IT OR NOT!

family vacations cooperstown

Getting back to the domestic front, this day was significant for two other events — the establishment of the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1936 and launch in 1941 of the last U.S. battleship, the USS Missouri. This is the day, in 1936, when the Baseball Writer’s Association of America named the first five American baseball legends to be inducted into the new Professional Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to be opened in 1939. This Hall of Fame would be built in Cooperstown, New York. The first five inductees were — Babe Ruth, Ty Cobb, Honus Wagner, Christy Matheson and Walter Johnson. These great players would lead a host of others over the years. Induction into the Hall of Fame was the goal of every player who took the field for a Major League team; it would also be the dream of every 10 or 11-year-old who took up ball, bat, and glove to play on their first Peewee League team. It became the “Mecca” or “Jerusalem” of any serious baseball fan. If they didn’t get there in actuality, it became an important item on their personal “bucket list.” Over the years, a wing was added to honor the women who played in the All-American Professional Women’s Baseball League during World War II. A wing was also establish to honor those great players in the Negro leagues before Jackie Robinson was able to bridge that color barrier in 1947. Visiting this Hall of Fame became the American youth’s quest for the “Holy Grail.”

USS_Missouri_watching_over_USS_Arizona_-_Pearl_Harbor

The other major event of significance on the home front was the launching, in 1941, of the last Battleship, The USS Missouri, for the U.S. Navy. Prior to World War II naval power had been the key to victory in any international history. During the days of the English fight against the Spanish Armada through the War of 1812, naval power were enforced by the large ships with several different gun decks and large number of canons, the “Ships of the Line.” At the end of the 19th century, England built the HMS Dreadnought, a large battleship that was equipped with many high-bore guns that could send their projectiles for 20 or more miles against opposing navies. No longer would the ships of one navy line up in a straight line sail past each other and firing their canons against the opposing lines of naval ships. As the two rows passed each other, firing their canons into their opposing number as they passed. This was something like two boxers standing toe to toe and hitting each other.

The HMS Dreadnought introduced a new style of naval battle in which these mighty ships would fire at enemy forces, either in the sea or on land, and they move on to the next ship. In World War II we remember the super-Battleships like the SMS Bismarck and SMS Prinz Eugen (Germany), the HMS Hood & HMS Prince of Wales (Britain), the Yamato (Japan) and the USS Missouri, USS Iowa, & USS Arizona (United States). Sea battles between these floating weapon fortifications would take place over the horizon with the enemy out of the line of sight! But this was the end of the line for these large battle wagons as World War II would prove the power of Naval Aviation; a flight of planes from a sea-based Aircraft carrier would be able to sink even the largest of these battleships. They would continue to serve in the bombardment of landing beaches, especially in the Pacific theatre of operations. But they were no longer the power houses of the seas. The “Mighty Mo” would have the honor of hosting the delegations from the Japanese and Allied nations during the surrender ceremonies that ended World War II. RIP, dear battleships, you served your country well and were the king of the mountain for so many decades; may you always be remembered for your heroics.

Murders_in_the_Rue_Morgue_1971

Finally, we remember that haunting poem that was published on this day in 1845, “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe. Poe would go on to write such short stories as “The Murders in the Rue Morgue,” “The Cask of Amontillado," and, of course, "The Pit and the Pendulum". He was the first American writer to try to make a living at only publishing his  works. But the poem, “The Raven,” appeared in the New York Evening Mirror and brought Poe immediate popularity. His writings helped promote the science fiction genre which had been started by the works of Jules Verne in France. He was criticized by many of the more important thinkers and writers of the 19th century such as William Butler Yeats, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Aldous Huxley. Most of the recent generations of our generations probably remember his works through their adaptation to the movie screen by that directing genius, Alfred Hitchcock.

So today is marked by influences in transportation, sea power, and sports remembrances. That simple motor-driven vehicle created and patented by Karl Benz on this day in 1886 triggered a number of technologies that have culminated in the hybrid and electric cars of today. Many of the advances of the automobile were incorporated into the huge battleships, such as the USS Missouri that was launched in 1941; while these battleships would be antiquated by the aircraft carrier and naval aviation, the “Mighty Mo” would serve us well during World War II. The American male’s hearts are uplifted by their identification with the great men and their memorabilia housed in the Professional Baseball Hall of Fame; these are the men that we have patterned our play after and pictured ourselves as a Willie Mays or Sandy Koufax as we played our hearts out. And the events of 911 were exploited to identify the post-Cold War terrorists as being supported by that triumvirate of countries identified by George W. Bush as the “Axis of Evil”; unfortunately their presumed tie-in with al-Qaeda and 911 led to a Vietnam-type of war in Iraq and Afghanistan with the intent to establish a democracy upon a people who may not be ready for it or even desirability of it. Hopefully, we will have the wisdom to avoid such intervention for the wrong reasons in the future.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 2097 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Edgar Allan Poe:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/e/edgar_allan_poe.html ]

    

“All that we see or seem is but a dream within a dream.”
— Edgar Allan Poe

“I became insane, with long intervals of horrible sanity.”
— Edgar Allan Poe

“I have great faith in fools; self-confidence my friends call it.”
— Edgar Allan Poe

“Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there, wondering, fearing, doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before.”
— Edgar Allan Poe

“Experience has shown, and a true philosophy will always show, that a vast, perhaps the larger portion of the truth arises from the seemingly irrelevant.”
— Edgar Allan Poe

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumb_thumb_thumbAmerica was challenged by its new, young President, John F. Kennedy, who at his inauguration called for the U.S. to put a man on the moon and return him safely to earth by the end of the 1960s. This was a major escalation of the space race that began when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I in 1957. The scientific, engineering, and manufacturing resources of America was directed towards this goal. I remember the pride that I felt when that first man stepped onto the lunar surface.

APOLLO 204 CREW TMH 01/27/2011

This quest to conquer space was not always successful. Launch vehicles failed, New technological solutions needed to be tweaked. scores of personnel needed to be trained. And a whole new science, telemetry, had to be developed. There were accidents happened; the worst of these occurred when three astronauts died in their command module of the Apollo 1 in 1967. The was a major, if temporary setback for the program.

But this problem was solved and man eventually did walk on the moon. We did achieve the goal presented to us by that President whose life was also lost to an assassin. You should check out my series on the Space Race; it is found under the “Emerging Technologies” menu tab. Many different developments needed to come together to accomplish this great goal.

When we look back at the contributions of the space program during the 1960s, we see amazing strides being made. I was in college at that time and saw these changes all around me. Living in Downey, California, put me near the nerve center of these advances, since North American Autonetics was just down the street. This was the company that designed and built the Apollo module. The computer brains behind the engineering and programming the onboard avionics for many of these missions. Much of the liquid Oxygen was generated in nearby Ontario and transported across the country by the trucking company I worked for during graduate school.

Oxygen_gas_truck_transport

At the beginning of the decades of the 1960s, computers were the devices that engineers operated. By the end of the 1960s, these devices became both more powerful and easier for the non-engineer to operate. At the beginning of the decade, telecommunications meant the telephones connected to AT&T, but by the end of the decade the first IMP (Internet Message Processor) had been delivered to UCLA, SRI, and the UC Santa Barbara campuses to test out the primitive ARPAnet that became the Internet two decades later. At the beginning of the decade found medical monitoring done with a stethoscope by a doctor, but by the end of the decade we had remote monitoring capability that allowed Mission Control to monitor the vital signs for astronauts in space. And, at the beginning of the decade computer-controlled systems required direct, hand-on manipulation while at the end of the decade new instructions could be sent the space vehicles hundreds of miles away. This was real progress brought about by the space program under NASA’s oversight.

Yes, on that terrible day in January of 1967 we lost three well-trained, good men in that capsule fire aboard the Apollo I module. But our space program was fortunate that these were the only deaths that we experienced during a decade of monumental progress. We don’t know how many, if any, Soviet cosmonauts were lost during their space program development; the Soviet’s maintained a closed society where any such losses were probably hidden to outsiders. We paid a small price for our successful landing on the moon.

But now its time to start our exploration of the Apollo 1 Program... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 2975 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Apollo:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/apollo.html ]

    

“He who commands an Apollo flight will not command a second one.”
— Wally Schirra

“At this point in my career, Apollo 13 is a million light years away.”
— Kathleen Quinlan

“Kennedy had made a mess in Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. He had to do something to look good. The Apollo program of going to the Moon was quite a goal.”
— Wally Schirra

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbToday we will focus primarily on domestic events since we don’t have any “earthshaking” events on the international scene identified. The closest we come to such an event centers upon a group of recording artists who gave their time and voices to create the blockbuster song “We are the World” that appeared in 1985. This recording was created to raise money for the relief of the people of Africa who were suffering from a terrible famine. The song was written by Michael Jackson and Lionel Richie and was produced by the Emmy-winning Quincy Jones. The sales from this song raised $60 million for the cause.

Opbushel

On the domestic front, we have three significant events. In recent history we have witnessed first-hand the explosion shortly after clearing the launch pad of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986. This event sent shutters through our bodies in a fashion similar to that that most of us did as we watched Neil Armstrong take those first steps on the moon in 1969. But this time, the reaction was not from the joyful sharing of an event of great import for all mankind, it came from the realization that the entire Challenger crew perished in the explosion. In just a few seconds, we saw the lift-off of the shuttle from the launch pad followed by a puff of white smoke that could be seen when the shuttle broke apart, with different large chunks going in different directions.

At the time, I was working for a school district and witnessed the event “real time,” not on video tape on the evening news. All educators were thrilled by the fact that one of our own, a high school teacher from New England, Christa McAuliffe, was travelling into space. She would be the first civilian to make such a voyage. She was prepared to carry out a number of educational experiments during her time in space and was being followed by schools across the country. But the voice of the TV commentator soon informed us that something terrible had happened a few seconds after launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

Challenger_flight_51l_crew

Then we witnessed the debris from the shuttle fall from the sky. With that debris were the bodies of the seven shuttle astronauts. There was no escape. This incident resulted in a suspension of future shuttle flights until the cause of the accident had been determined and remedied. And it turned out that the cause was due to the failure of an O-Ring that cost just a few dollars. After this tragedy, both the equipment checks before launch and the launch procedures themselves were changed. A major cause of the O-Ring failure was the launch in the early morning hours in freezing weather. Ice had been an ever-present hazard to all launches from Cape Canaveral over the years; each crew breathed a sigh of relief when their vehicle had cleared the launch tower. Procedures were instituted that prevented launch until ice would no longer be a hazard.

Other significant events on this day have been a bit more upbeat. In 1861, at the start of the Civil War, Julia Ward Howe wrote a song that was initially sung in churches across the North. This song, “The Battle Hymn of the Republic,” then began to be sung by Union troops as they marched into their battles. It is an uplifting song that I learned in elementary school. It had a catchy tune, uplifting words, and I remember singing it proudly. If you have not done so recently, check out the words to this song; it will raise your spirit and put you into a positive frame of mind. (See the video below for the song’s history.)

The final event of the day was an advance in the quest for equality for minorities. In 1916, Louis Brandeis, a Jew, was nominated as a Supreme Court Justice by President Woodrow Wilson. Brandeis was known as the “People’s Attorney” because of his defense of equal treatment of minority groups. This nomination and its eventual confirmation by the U.S. Senate transpired in the days prior to the entry of the United States into World War I. While a Justice, Brandeis continued to write opinions championing the cause of equal treatment of all men, not just the rich or corporations.

It is interesting to note that this confirmation of a Jew to the highest court of our land occurred just twenty years before the beginning of the Nazi persecution of the Jewish people in Germany. As we discussed yesterday, Hitler’s “Final Solution to the Jewish Problem” resulted in the creation of extermination camps to carry out the genocide against the Jews. While the persecution started with the deprivation of Jews of their property rights, it continued into Kristalnacht and then the creation of Jewish ghettos in Eastern Europe. With men like Brandeis watching out for the rights of all Americans, we have avoided that type of persecution for most groups in the 20th century.

Lombardi_Vince_Mural_180-220

On a minor, but inspiring note we find that the Head Football Coach of the Green Bay Packers NFL team was given a contract extension in 1959. This event is not important for its overt contract extension, but to focus our attention upon Vince Lombardi, a man who has provided inspiration to not only his players, but athletes throughout the sports world have benefitted from his inspiring sayings. Men like Lombardi are essential to the maturing of young men and women into good citizens and displaying good sportsmanship.

We need to view the events of this day in a spirit of good sportsmanship, emphasizing the equality of all peoples of our country, and the need to nurture young people to good citizenship and patriotism. We need to put aside the feelings of being better than others and foster a spirit of positive adoption of understanding and cooperation among all groups within our country. This spirit of inclusiveness can avoid the branding of individual or cultures negatively. I have been bothered by the blaming all Muslims for the events of 911 and the destruction of the Twin Towers. Those events were the work of individual radical groups of terrorists, not be Muslims. Yes, I know that there are major cultural differences between our two world views, but understanding I think is a more desirable quest than reacting with hostility. We don’t have to accept their religion or philosophy of life, but we do need to understand their culture and world-view to help prevent such terrorist acts in the future.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1692 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Louis D. Brandeis:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/l/louis_d_brandeis.html ]

    

“If we desire respect for the law, we must first make the law respectable.”
— Louis D. Brandeis

“If we would guide by the light of reason we must let our minds be bold.”
— Louis D. Brandeis

“Neutrality is at times a graver sin than belligerence.”
— Louis D. Brandeis

“Experience teaches us to be most on our guard to protect liberty when the government’s purposes are beneficent.”
— Louis D. Brandeis

“In the frank expression of conflicting opinions lies the greatest promise of wisdom in governmental action.”
— Louis D. Brandeis

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbToday we find some extremely consequential events appearing on our calendar of the past. These include one earthshaking international event and two overwhelming domestic events. The international event provided for the eventual declaration of this day as “International Holocaust Remembrance Day” by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 60/7 in 2005 in memory of those Jews exterminated in the Nazi death camps. What was the event? Today, in 1945, the Russian Army, in its march across southern Poland, entered a concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau and found the remains of dead Jewish bodies in piles waiting for the crematoria.

Auschwitz,_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden

Auschwitz was actually a complex of three camps. Auschwitz-Birkenau was the main death camp while the others were work camp in which the Jews, Roma (Gypsies), and other “Undesirables” were starved, worked hard, and subject to medical experiments by madmen like Dr. Mengele. As the railcars of “deportees” entered the camps, they were sorted into those who were to go directly to the death chambers (women, children, and elderly) and those who would go to the work camps to be worked to death. The exterminations camps were part of Hitler’s “Final Solution to the Jewish Problem” that would efficiently eliminate the Jewish population from the Third Reich. This pogrom was under the supervision of the Minister of the Interior, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. Those destined for immediate extermination were undressed, herded into showers, and killed with poison gas. Their bodies would then be taken to the crematoria for “disposal.” These camps, along with others throughout Eastern Europe and Germany were a secret to outsiders until the Red Army entered Auschwitz. The world was shocked!

This day also witnessed another international event that had importance to the United States, the signing of the Paris Peace Accords in 1973. These Accords were to formally ended the Vietnam War between the North Vietnamese (and their proxy in the the south, the Viet Cong) and the U.S. Vietnam became a communist state after these Accords, our removed our troops and had our POWs released. The actual end of the conflict did not occur until two years later, however. The troops and POWs returned to an America that was severely conflicted over a war that seemed to lack direction or a will to win.

Bruce_Crandalls_UH1D

Our involvement started during the Eisenhower administration after the French forces were defeated at Dien Bien Phu in 1954. The country was partitioned into a Northern (Communist) Regime and a Southern (Democratic) Regime. Free elections were to be held in the South in 1955, but were cancelled by the U.S. when it appeared that the communists would win. Our troops were involved there started as military advisors and then in the summer of 1965 escalated into active involvement after the Gulf of Tonkin incident. We apparently didn’t learn our lesson about fighting a war of independence for a goal (Democracy) that the native population of a country didn’t necessarily want. We were bogged down in jungle fighting with guerrillas defending their homeland; the lesson from Vietnam was apparently not learned by our leaders when President George W. Bush sent our troops into Iraq and Afghanistan to install democratic form of government.

On the domestic scene we have two incidents that “grab” our attention. The one of more immediate importance to our contemporary generations is the Tragedy of Apollo 1 in 1967. Our nation was challenged by our new, young President, John F. Kennedy, in 1961 to send a man to the moon and return him safely to Earth within the decade of the 1960s. My generation took this challenge to heart and set off on the quest to conquer space. We received a wake-up call in 1957 when the Soviet Union sent into Earth Orbit an artificial satellite, Sputnik I. When Kennedy gave us his challenge, no man had escaped the Earth atmosphere, although some of our test pilots had approached that goal. We launched our first astronaut, Alan Shepard, into Sub-Orbital Space in a Mercury capsule (the Freedom 7) in 1961. We launched a pair of astronauts, “Gus” Grissom and John Young, in a Gemini capsule in 1963 into Earth Orbit. We were making progress and learning about the mechanics and technologies necessary to send a set of men to the moon. In 1967, we were ready to launch three astronauts on the first test of a new capsule, the Apollo capsule, using the Saturn rocket, whose first stage was based heavily on the design of the German V2 developed by Wehrner von Braun for the Nazis. The Apollo 1 was to launch “Gus” Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee; while they were undergoing a pre-flight test of the capsule environment, a spark in the capsule ignited the pure oxygen environment and these three astronauts were lost.

5927_NASA

This event would require adjustments to the capsule environment and other launch procedures. Eventually, we accomplished the goal set for our nation by the former President John F. Kennedy. The Apollo 11 would carry three astronauts into space; the “lucky” astronauts were Neil Armstrong, “Buzz” Aldrin, and Jim Lovell to the moon in 1969. On July 20, 1969, while many of us sat in the comfort of our living rooms our TVs allowed us to watch as Neil Armstrong emerged from the Lunar Module and stepped onto the moon for the first time. We thrilled when he spoke those famous words, “That’s one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.” We had mastered the technologies, engineering, and practical problems to carry out this dream of man. Ironically, the details of the launch of the Apollo 11 and that of the science fiction account of Jules Verne novel From the Earth to the Moon in most respects; the one major point of departure was that Verne had his astronauts launched by a large gun instead of on a rocket; rockets were merely fireworks in Verne’s day!

Another significant event on this day, one that has probably had more long term impact upon our nation and society, was a speech given by a young, backwoods lawyer from Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, to a group of young men at the Young Men’s Lyceum in Springfield, Missouri in 1838. The future president of the U.S. would emphasize to these young men the importance of the rule of law in our country. This emphasis upon the law would be applied by President Lincoln to even those states that had seceded from the Union to form the Confederacy. Lincoln still considered them as part of the Union and directed his generals during our Civil War with that guiding principle still in mind. When he signed the Emancipation Proclamation in January, 1863, he freed the slaves in those seceding states by executive order; the African Americans held as slaves in those states were freed from their bondage.

Lee_Surrenders_to_Grant_at_Appomattox

When General Grant accepted the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865, he did so without the need of a treaty — the prodigal son had returned home. When his troops surrendered, they were permitted to keep their arms since they were still citizens of this nation. They were under the rule of law. We all know that the Civil War did not end all injustices to minority groups in this country. Women still were considered the “property” of their husbands and did not have the vote or equal rights with men. African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and the Native American Indians would not realize their full role as Americans until another one hundred years had passed. But the rule of law still prevailed and full rights were eventually gained by all citizens under the U.S. Constitution and its amendments. The message the young Abraham Lincoln delivered this day in 1838 still rings true — we are all covered by the rule of law!

In summation, this is a day that has witnessed a great deal of the brutality of man against his/her fellow man. We have witnessed the discrimination of slavery and the women in our society. We have witnessed also on this day the brutality of man against man when ideologies clash, such as in Vietnam and later in Iraq and Afghanistan. But it was brought into its clearest focus by the revelation of the Nazi Holocaust and death camps such as Auschwitz that were designed to carry out Hitler’s “Final Solution” to attempt the total genocide of the Jews. These Jews served as scapegoats for the perceived economic woes of Germany, but they might as well have been the African American slaves in the South, the American Indians removed from their ancestral lands in this country and, more recently, the Muslim minorities in the former Yugoslavian states. Discrimination and inhumanity has been carried out against women for centuries, depriving them of any property rights because they, themselves, were considered the property of their fathers or husbands. We are making progress, but we need to always remain vigilant to the abuses of power.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1954 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Thomas Edison:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/t/thomas_a_edison.html ]

    

“Everything comes to him who hustles while he waits.”
— Thomas Edison

“Genius is 1 percent inspiration, and 99 percent perspiration…”
— Thomas Edison

“We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles.”
— Thomas Edison

“There is no expedient to which a man will not resort to avoid the real labor of thinking.”
— Sir Joshua Reynolds

“Shucks, we haven’t failed. Now we know a thousand things that won’t work, so we’re that much closer to finding what will.”
— Thomas Edison

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThere were a number of significant international and domestic events that are associated with this day. We will emphasize one international and three domestic events in this post. The major international event occurred in the mid-20th century India after the partitioning of the former British Colony of India, the Crown of the British Empire, into a Muslim country, Pakistan, and a traditional Indian (Hindu) one. In fact, Pakistan started out as a divided country — East Pakistan (Bangladesh) and West Pakistan. When the country was partitioned under U.N. supervision starting in 1948, a great deal of turmoil and interracial conflict occurred. If a family’s home was in the wrong religious section, the family was forced to yield their homes and move to the other country. This happened both ways — Muslims left the new India for one of the sections of Pakistan and the Hindus left the new Pakistan for India. Much conflict flared on the roads as both groups, upset at leaving their homes, attacked those of the other religion along the roads. It was a mess. In 1950, Rajendra Prasad was elected as the first president of the new Indian state. He faced the task of bringing the new transplants into a very structured, caste-defined society. He was able to accomplish this pretty successfully to bring modern, post-colonial India into the family of nations.

Nehru_Gandhi_1937There were also two less attention-grabbing, but historically-important events on this day in the international scope. In 1788, a small convoy of ships landed in Sydney Harbor in Australia under the oversight of Captain Arthur Phillips. His entourage included several ships that carried 700 British prisoners who would be house in a new penal colony in New South Wales; Australia was considered to be an optimal location for housing difficult prisoners due to its isolated location and difficulty in returning to the U.K. This day continues to be celebrated as “Australia Day” down under in commemoration of this initial landing of British citizens.

A second international event to be considered occurred in 1970 when a Navy pilot, Lt. Everett Alvarez, Jr., was shot down over North Vietnam during the bombing campaign against Hanoi and Haiphong harbor. Alvarez was put into a North Vietnamese Prisoner of War camp, becoming the first POW captured over North Vietnam. He would remain a POW for over 2000 days before being released after the signing of the Paris Peace Accords.

American_tank_firing

On the domestic front, with a tie-in to the international scene, was the recognition of the heroism of a regular soldier, Audie Murphy, for his feats during World War II in Europe. Murphy was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1945 for his defense of the men of his unit against a strong force of German infantry supported by five tanks. Audie Murphy became the the most decorated soldier from World War II. He fought in the Operation Torch landings in North Africa, the landings on the beaches of Anzio in Italy, and in the southern campaign in France. It was in the latter he exhibited his heroic behavior in the face of an overwhelming enemy in defense of the other men in his unit. Murphy also fought in the Korean War. After his wartime feats, he starred in movies among other activities.

On this day we also saw the premiere of Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musical, The Phantom of the Opera, opened in the Majestic Theater on Broadway. I remember watching the performance of this play in Los Angeles with awe of the staging, songs, and performance of the actors. The original production, in 1988, starred the vocal talents of Sarah Brightman (one of my favorite songstresses) and Michael Crawford as the Phantom. I went away from it totally overwhelmed, as I’m sure that the original Broadway crowds did at its opening. It has been performed on Broadway nearly 10,000 times, becoming the longest-running play in Broadway history. Believe me, it deserves all the honors that it has received. I still love to listen to the CDs of the cast of that original ensemble and never tire of it — it lifts up one’s soul!

Also on this day, we saw the appointment of Dr. Janet G. Travell as the personal physician by John F. Kennedy in 1961. After JFKs assassination, Travell stayed on as the personal physician for Lyndon Johnson during his tenure as President. Finally, on a downbeat note, this was the day in 1998 on which President Bill Clinton denied having an affair with former White House intern, Monica Lewinsky, at a White House press conference. His denial statement, “I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky,” was much discussed when he posed the question, at a later time, “What is Sex?” That was not a highlight of the U.S. Presidency!

Well, that sort of sums things up on this day. As you will see on the timeline of the events on this day, there were some other events associated with this day, but we’ve used up our space for this post. All in all, today bore witness to many notable events that played themselves out on the pages of history. To fully understand them, one needs to read and learn more about the context of these happenings to fully appreciate their importance since the events of today really represent the veritable “tip of the iceberg.” Come back again to catch a small window on the events of another day!

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1513 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Audie Murphy:

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“And freedom is what America means to the world.”
— Audie Murphy

“They were singing in French, but the melody was freedom and any American could understand that.”
— Audie Murphy

“I Knew why I felt at home. The spirit of freedom was hovering over that play yard as it did all over France at that time. A country was free again.”
— Audie Murphy

“I’m glad that it didn’t take as long to get Shepard off the ground as it’s taken this series. I’d begun to think the Congo would be ahead of us in the space race before Whispering Smith ever got on the air.”
— Audie Murphy

“The true meaning of America, you ask? It’s in a Texas rodeo, in a policeman’s badge, in the sound of laughing children, in a political rally, in a newspaper… In all these things, and many more, you’ll find America. In all these things, you’ll find freedom. And freedom is what America means to the world. And to me.”
— Audie Murphy

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis was a good day for events. As we look back on the events falling on this day, we note two major international and three domestic events of consequence. On the international scene, this was the day in 1533 when King Henry VIII of England married his second wife, Anne Boleyn, who was already pregnant with their daughter who would become Queen Elizabeth I upon her father’s death. Three years later, Anne Boleyn would suffer the same fate of Henry’s first wife — she would lose her head in the Tower of England. Henry VIII was desperately seeking a male heir which none of his wives was able to provide him. Under Elizabeth I, England would become a world power. The Pax Britannica was just around the corner! 

Entebbe_Airport_DF-ST-99-05538

More recently, this day witnessed the ascension of General Idi Amin to power in Uganda after a military coup in 1971. Amin would become a harsh dictator and rule this central African country with an iron hand for the next eight years. During his tenure, he would support terrorism that would include the detention of the 248 passengers by Palestinian and German terrorist who where aboard a hijacked Air France flight at Entebbe Airport in 1975. These hostages were freed during a daring raid by Israeli Special Forces in 90 minutes. Ultimately, he was removed from his position by Ugandan rebels and Tanzanian troops in 1979 to end his oppressive reign.

The minor international event was the staging of a futuristic, science fiction play, “Rossum’s Universal Robots,” by Czech playwright Karel Capek in 1921. The primary significance of this play, beyond its dramatic value, was the foreshadowing the actual events 58 years later on an assembly line at the Ford Motor Company’s plant in Flat Rock, Michigan, when a worker was killed by an industrial robot.

51

On the domestic front, this day witnessed the arrival in New Jersey of Ms. Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Jane Cochrane) after her circumnavigation of the world in 72 days in 1890. This trip was patterned after the voyage of Phileas Fogg in Jules Verne’s science fiction classic, Around the World in 80 Days that was published in 1873. While traversing the globe Ms. Bly, a journalist for the New York World newspaper whose publisher was the famed Joseph Pulitzer of the Journalism Prize fame, visited the famed Jules Verne in his home in Amiens, France. She wrote update reports for the paper. She gained her job by going undercover to expose the abuses of the mental hospitals of the day; she became a patient for one week before being rescued from the abusive environment. Through this story, she pioneered the field investigative reporting in a world dominated by male reporters. Her exposé led to the reform of the mental hospital system in New York City and eventually across the nation. She was a real hero!

A few years later, in 1915, Alexander Graham Bell initiated the first transcontinental telephone call to his assistant, Thomas Watson, in San Francisco. President Woodrow Wilson, in Washington, D.C., and AT&T President, Theodore Vail, in Atlanta also participated in this test of the system. The expansion of this system of communication would continue the process of shrinking the nation that was begun by the pony express, transcontinental telegraph, overland Butterfield Mail Stage, and the transcontinental railroad of the second half of the 19th century. It would remain to the decade of the 1960s for it to take the next step in the globalize this communication via satellite relays.

Another event that served to shrink the world was the establishment, in 1959, of the first transcontinental passenger airline jet service. American airlines put the Boeing 707 into transcontinental, nonstop service. Air travel now became the preferred mode of travel since it eliminated the multiple stops (for refueling) that made transcontinental travel by air a trying ordeal. The prop-driven Convair 990s and the Lockheed Electras were used to service regional routes. This was the prelude to the ending of passenger service by rail and transoceanic travel via steamships. The airplane would indeed shrink the world. We are now moving into the era of the super jumbo jets like the Airbus 380 and the Boeing 777 which will carry larger passenger loads over larger distances with less noise and more passenger comfort. It would seem that the future is now!

A380_Emirates_A6-EDC

The minor event of the day was the airing, in 1937, of the first broadcast episode of the soap opera, The Guiding Light. This program started out on the radio and transitioned to television in the early 1950s. It became the longest-running dramatic broadcast in history until its cancellation in 2009.

So, today was highlighted by the international tyranny of monarchs and dictators as well as the shrinking of the nation and world by communication and transportation technologies. We are indeed living in a world that is characterized by instant communication and facilitated travel. We are fast approaching of a true world community.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with this day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1527 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Nellie Bly:

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“Could I pass a week in the insane ward at Blackwell’s Island? I said I could and I would. And I did.”
— Nellie Bly

“I always made a point of telling the doctors I was sane, and asking to be released, but the more I endeavored to assure them of my sanity, the more they doubted it.”
— Nellie Bly

“I had, toward the last, been shut off from all visitors, and so when the lawyer, Peter A. Hendricks, came and told me that friends of mine were willing to take charge of me if I would rather be with them than in the asylum, I was only too glad to give my consent.”
— Nellie Bly

“I always had a desire to know asylum life more thoroughly – a desire to be convinced that the most helpless of God’s creatures, the insane, were cared for kindly and properly.”
— Nellie Bly

“In our short walks we passed the kitchen where food was prepared for the nurses and doctors. There we got glimpses of melons and grapes and all kinds of fruits, beautiful white bread and nice meats, and the hungry feeling would be increased tenfold.”
— Nellie Bly

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbToday in History features one major international and three major domestic events. The international event was the discovery, in 1972, an Imperial Japanese soldier, Sgt. Shoichi Yokoi, in a jungle cave on the island of Guam. Our U.S. Marines took the island of Guam during the summer of 1944 after a hard fought battle during the Pacific island-hopping campaign on our way to the home islands of Japan during World War II. These Japanese soldiers were known for their tenacity, hard fighting, and resistance to surrendering to the American troops. Sgt. Yokoi was found living in a cave using weapons and tools that he had crafted himself during this period of time.

USMC-M-Guam-Orote

On the domestic front, the major event associated with this day in history took place in a small town in the Sierra Nevada foothills, Coloma, California, in 1848. While building a sawmill for John A. Sutter, the contractor, James W. Marshall, discovered flakes of gold in the American River. Why is this event so important? It triggered one of the biggest migrations to the west coast of our country into the former Mexican territory of (Alta) California. This event, the California Gold Rush of 1848; these “Forty-Niners,” flocked to the gold fields seeking their fortunes. They came via almost every possible mode of transportation — by steamship, wagon train, horseback, and even by foot. They traveled through Indian territory or around the treacherous cape of South America. But most failed to make their fortunes and many died as a result of the elements or lawlessness of the boom towns built at the gold fields and then abandoned to the elements when the gold ran out to become another ghost town. Who were the winners? The merchants who sold supplies to these hopeful miners and to the new cities of Sacramento and San Francisco. The population of the territory swelled, the former Mexican inhabitants were replaced by the new settlers, and the territory finally became the 31st state in 1850.

California_Gold_Rush

On a sadder note, this day in 1956 witnessed the acquittal of the two men accused of kidnapping and murdering of an African American teenager visiting Mississippi from the Chicago area in 1955. This teen, Emmett Till, was accused of flirting with a white woman working in her husband’s store. They took him from the home of the relatives that he was visiting, transported him into the woods, and murdered him after torturing him as punishment for “not knowing his place.” Till was the victim of the cultural differences between the North (Chicago area) and the South (rural Mississippi) during the waning days of the reign of Jim Crow. The men, J.W. Milam and Roy Bryant were accused of the crime and brought to trial. He was tried in Mississippi by an all-white jury who readily acquitted them of the crime. Only through extensive activity by civil rights activists did the facts arise; these men confessed to the crimes in a Look Magazine interview, but due to double jeopardy limitations they could not be retried using the confession. But this incident was an early skirmish in the Civil Rights Movement that reached its fruition in the 1960s under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Yesterday, we shared the famous Apple Computer commercial at the Super Bowl in 1984 that introduced the Macintosh Computer. Today saw the first opportunity of the people of America to purchase this cute little computer with its 128K of memory, 9” black and white high-resolution screen, a mouse (pointing device) and preinstalled software for word processing (MacWrite) and graphics (MacPaint). This computer was the first wide-distribution computer to use a Graphic User Interface (GUI) and was relatively expensive, especially compared to the IBM-PC. It was the darling of the creative and artistic types then and has continued to be to this day. It sold like hotcakes and started the phenomenon that is Apple. These computers blossomed and remains innovative as do its “little brothers,” the iPod, iPhone, and the iPad. They all reflected the free-thinking of their developer, Steve Jobs.

Mac_Design_Team

On the lighter side, several important events that were not as earthshaking but probably impacted more people than the above events occurred on this day. A school teacher, Christian K. Nelson, received a patent on this day in 1922 for combining a block of ice cream and chocolate coating into the iconic snack food, the Eskimo Pie ice cream bar. In 1935, a small brewing company in Virginia was the first to package their beer and ale in the first beer cans. And, an inventor, Percy Spencer, who lacked even a grammar school education, received a patent for the microwave oven in 1950. These small items have been helpful to more people than any of the other events discussed above.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1416 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Macintosh:

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“I think the Macintosh proves that everyone can have a bitmapped display.”
— Bill Joy

“My first Macintosh was a 128k machine which I upgraded to 512k the minute it became possible.”
— Buffy Sainte-Marie

“Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs founded Apple Inc, which set the computing world on its ear with the Macintosh in 1984.”
— Kevin Mitnick

“The Macintosh having shipped, his next agenda was to turn the rest of Apple into the Mac group. He had perceived the rest of Apple wasn’t as creative or motivated as the Mac team, and what you need to take over the company are managers, not innovators or technical people.”
— Andy Hertzfeld

“Most people have no concept of how an automatic transmission works, yet they know how to drive a car. You don’t have to study physics to understand the laws of motion to drive a car. You don’t have to understand any of this stuff to use Macintosh.”
— Steve Jobs

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis was a day on which a number of significant events are noteworthy, especially on the international scene. On this day in 1968, the USS Pueblo and her crew were captured by the North Koreans when the ship navigated out of international  waters. The crew would be held captive for eleven months before being released. Why was this such an important event? The USS Pueblo was an intelligence ship and carried sophisticated surveillance equipment that would be useful to our possible future enemies.

USS_Pueblo_(AGER-2)

But the more important international event on this day in 1973 was the announcement by President Richard Nixon of the peace accord negotiated by our National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger and North Vietnamese negotiator Le Doc Tho. The Paris Peace Accords set the conditions for a cease fire between the two countries, the withdrawal of American troops, and the release of the American POWs. These accords were formally signed on January 27th. The Vietnam War had generated a deal of dissent among the draft-aged college population.

JrobinsonOn the home front, this day was marked by some relatively minor events and a couple of blockbuster events. The first of the blockbusters was the induction of that great African American, multi-sport star, Jackie Robinson, into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962 (Cooperstown, Ohio). Robinson was a multisport athlete at UCLA and then played in the Negro Leagues down South; the major leagues were still segregated. But in 1947, Branch Rickey, the president of the Brooklyn Dodgers, signed Robinson to a contract to play for the Major League team — he broke the “color” barrier. During his early years on the team, he was showered by jeers, racial slurs, and discriminatory treatment, but he “turned the other cheek” and let his play speak for him. And what a speech that was! He was outstanding and opened the way for other Blacks, Hispanics, and other minority players to enter the major leagues. His induction into the Hall of Fame was another barrier that he broke; all previous “negroes” were in a separate Hall of Fame for the Negro Leagues. Robinson was inducted on the first try by a unanimous vote in 1962, the first year that he was eligible. He was a real “man’s man”!

Roots_25th_Anniversary_EditionThe other blockbuster event that occurred on this day was a miniseries that aired on ABC-TV for eight days starting this day in 1977. What miniseries was this? ROOTS, the story of an African who was captured by a slaving tribe in his native West African homeland, sold to white slavers, surviving the ocean voyage to the American South where he would be sold into the degradation of slavery on a southern plantation. The story was based on the book, Roots, by Alex Haley and purportedly represents his family’s experience in America through a slave, Kunta Kinte, played by the unknown Black actor, LeVar Burton (who would later star in Star Trek, The Next Generation.) The nation would be captivated for the next week and would come face-to-face with the horrors of slavery. This was a breakthrough a major cultural barrier and a basis for cultural understanding. Who can forget the baby held by his father and lifted up to the sky in dedication (baptism, if you will). This miniseries, I believe, brought a whole new sense of pride and hope for a past as well as a future to new generations of Blacks.

A critical event occurred during the legislative flurry of LBJ’s Great Society was the passage of Twenty-Fourth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution in 1964. This amendment barred the imposition of poll taxes and other barriers used to keep African Americans from voting in Federal Elections. The major impact of this amendment was upon southern states where it was used to prevent the poor and African American populations from voting and thus upsetting the status quo.

And the final major event of this day was Elizabeth Blackwell becoming the first female in the United States to receive a medical doctorate in 1849. After being rejected by the major medical schools, she was admitted to Geneva Medical College in Geneva, New York; she would provide medical services to the troops during the Civil War and opened the way for the women of later years to become physicians, not just nurses or midwives.

Of much less consequence were several other event that are associated with this day. The first permanent bridge spanning the Mississippi River in Minnesota was opened in 1855. The Wham-O Toy Company produced and sold a new concept in toys, the “Pluto Platter,” or Frisbie, patterned after the pie tins used by the Frisbie Pie Company; the game based on this toy was a rage amongst university students. 

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1361 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Jackie Robinson:

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“Above anything else, I hate to lose.”
— Jackie Robinson

“A life is not important except in the impact it has on other lives.”
— Jackie Robinson

“There’s not an American in this country free until every one of us is free.”
— Jackie Robinson

“Life is not a spectator sport. If you’re going to spend your whole life in the grandstand just watching what goes on, in my opinion you’re wasting your life.”
— Jackie Robinson

“I’m not concerned with your liking or disliking me… All I ask is that you respect me as a human being.”
— Jackie Robinson

“The way I figured it, I was even with baseball and baseball with me. The game had done much for me, and I had done much for it.”
— Jackie Robinson

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbToday’s events are a very mixed group of happenings. A significant international event was the death of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Ireland who died in 1901. She ruled the British Empire for 63 years. After her beloved husband, Albert, died, she mourned for his for the rest of her life. During her lifetime, she witnessed the development of many technologies, including steam power, the industrial revolution, invention of photography, and the British Empire included about 25% of the countries around the world. Also we witnessed the introduction of a very innovative computer, the Apple Macintosh, in a commercial during the Super Bowl by Steve Jobs and company in 1984. During the World War II era, we witnessed the initial splitting of the uranium atom by the Columbia University (New York) Cyclotron in 1939 and the landing of Allied forces on Anzio Beach (Italy) in 1944.

Queen Victoria Monument

This day was also marked by some significant events for women. It was on this day in 1973 that the Supreme Court handed down its blockbuster decision in Roe v. Wade that legalized abortions for the women of this country. It is also the day that witnessed the unanimous confirmation of former U.N. Ambassador Madeleine Albright as the first woman Secretary of State in 1997 during President Clinton’s term in office. On a less positive note, this day witnessed mathematics professor Ted Kaczynski, the Unabomber, agreed to a plea deal that put him in prison without parole. So today was quite memorable.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 759 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Queen Victoria:

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“Being married gives one one’s position like nothing else can.”
— Queen Victoria

“Being pregnant is an occupational hazard of being a wife.”
— Queen Victoria

“The Queen is most anxious to enlist everyone in checking this mad, wicked folly of ‘Women’s Rights’. It is a subject which makes the Queen so furious that she cannot contain herself.”
— Queen Victoria

“I would venture to warn against too great intimacy with artists as it is very seductive and a little dangerous.”
— Queen Victoria

“For a man to strike any women is most brutal, and I, as well as everyone else, think this far worse than any attempt to shoot, which, wicked as it is, is at least more comprehensible and more courageous.”
— Queen Victoria

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