Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb[2]Sam Houston was an unique leader. He served as the Governor of two different states, as Senator of a third state and the President of an independent country. He was also a General who led a rebellion against Mexico to create the Republic of Texas. In fact, he led a smaller army against Santa Anna’s forces who overwhelmed the defenders of the Alamo; he staged a night raid on the Mexican army in the Battle of San Jacinto in just eighteen minutes!

Houston not only wanted an independent Texas, he wanted it to become part of the United States. He was a tireless leader who was a friend of the Indians who were relocated to the western territories. These skills helped forge the largest state in the union up to that time.

Battle_of_Horseshoe_Bend_thumb[2]

But our focus today is upon the Battle of San Jacinto. The Texans reaped revenge on the Mexican force that wiped out the defenders of the Alamo and the executioners of the Texan prisiners at Goliad. in one short batt, the cries of “Remember the Alamo” and
“Remember Goliad” were satisfied.

So, let’s get today’s exploration started…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3845 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to SAM HOUSTON:

    

“Texas has yet to learn submission to any oppression, come from what source it may.”
— Sam Houston

“Whether his policy was right or wrong, he built up the glory of the nation.”
— Sam Houston

“A leader is someone who helps improve the lives of other people or improve the system they live under.”
— Sam Houston

“I am aware that in presenting myself as the advocate of the Indians and their rights, I shall stand very much alone.”
— Sam Houston

“In the name of the constitution of Texas, which has been trampled upon, I refuse to take this oath. I love Texas too well to bring civil strife and bloodshed upon her.”
— Sam Houston

“Remember that whatever may be said by a lady or her friends, it is not part of conduct of a gallant or generous man to take up arms against a woman.”
— Sam Houston

“All new states are invested, more or less, by a class of noisy, second-rate men who are always in favor of rash and extreme measures, but Texas was absolutely overrun by such men.”
— Sam Houston

“I would not be gotten into a schoolhouse until I was eight years old. Nor did I accomplish much after I started. I doubt if I had gone to school six months in all when my father died. I was fourteen at the time.”
— Sam Houston

 

Sam Houston Defeats General Santa Anna at San Jacinto…

    

    
Sam_Houston_PaintingSamuel Houston
, known as Sam Houston (March 2, 1793 – July 26, 1863), was a 19th-century American statesman, politician, and soldier. He was born in Timber Ridge in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, of Scots-Irish descent. Houston became a key figure in the history of Texas and was elected as the first and third President of the Republic of Texas, US Senator for Texas after it joined the United States, and finally as governor of the state. He refused to swear loyalty to the Confederacy when Texas seceded from the Union, and resigned as governor. To avoid bloodshed, he refused an offer of a Union army to put down the Confederate rebellion. Instead, he retired to Huntsville, Texas, where he died before the end of the Civil War.

His earlier life included migration to Tennessee from Virginia, time spent with the Cherokee Nation (into which he later was adopted as a citizen and took a wife), military service in the War of 1812, and successful participation in Tennessee politics. Houston is the only person in U.S. history to have been the governor of two different states (although other men had served as governors of more than one American territory).

Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 –; 21 June 1876), often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, self-called the Napoleon of the West, was a Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government. Santa Anna first fought against the independence from Spain, and then supported it. He was not the first caudillo (military leader) of Mexico, but he was among the most original. He rose to the ranks of general and president at various times over a turbulent 40-year career. He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive occasions over a period of 22 years.
   

    

Texas Revolution

Like other states discontented with the central Mexican authorities, the Texas department of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas rebelled in late 1835 and declared itself independent on March 2, 1836. Santa Anna marched north to bring Texas back under Mexican control. On March 6, 1836, at the Battle of the Alamo, Santa Anna’s forces killed 187-250 Texan defenders and later executed more than 350 Texan prisoners at the Goliad Massacre (March 27, 1836).

Antonio_Lopez_de_Santa_Anna_1852General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
led Mexican troops into Texas in 1836.
    

The defeat at the Alamo however served its purpose buying time for General Sam Houston and his Texas forces. Houston and his soldiers defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, with the Texan army shouting "Remember Goliad, Remember the Alamo!" The day after the battle on April 22, a small band of Texan forces led by James Sylvester captured Santa Anna, dressed in a dragoon private’s uniform and hiding in a marsh.

Acting Texas president David G. Burnet and Santa Anna signed the Treaties of Velasco: "in his official character as chief of the Mexican nation, he acknowledged the full, entire, and perfect Independence of the Republic of Texas." In exchange, Burnet and the Texas government guaranteed Santa Anna’s life and transport to Veracruz. Back in Mexico City, however, a new government declared that Santa Anna was no longer president and that the treaty with Texas was null and void.

While captive in Texas, Joel Roberts Poinsett — U.S. minister to Mexico in 1824 — offered a harsh assessment of General Santa Anna’s situation, stating:

Say to General Santa Anna that when I remember how ardent an advocate he was of liberty ten years ago, I have no sympathy for him now, that he has gotten what he deserves.

To this message, Santa Anna made the reply:

Say to Mr. Poinsett that it is very true that I threw up my cap for liberty with great ardor, and perfect sincerity, but very soon found the folly of it. A hundred years to come my people will not be fit for liberty. They do not know what it is, unenlightened as they are, and under the influence of a Catholic clergy, a despotism is the proper government for them, but there is no reason why it should not be a wise and virtuous one.

    

The Battle of San Jacinto

The_Battle_of_San_Jacinto_(1895)The Battle of San Jacinto-1895 painting by Henry Arthur
McArdle (1836-1908)
    

The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texian Army engaged and defeated General Antonio López de Santa Anna’s Mexican forces in a fight that lasted just eighteen minutes. About 630 of the Mexican soldiers were killed and 730 captured, while only nine Texans died.

Santa Anna, the President of Mexico, was captured the following day and held as a prisoner of war. Three weeks later, he signed the peace treaty that dictated that the Mexican army leave the region, paving the way for the Republic of Texas to become an independent country. These treaties did not specifically recognize Texas as a sovereign nation, but stipulated that Santa Anna was to lobby for such recognition in Mexico City. Sam Houston became a national celebrity, and the Texans’ rallying cries, "Remember the Alamo!" and "Remember Goliad!" became etched into American history and legend.

    

Background

During the early years of Mexican independence, numerous American immigrants had settled in Mexican Texas, then a part of the state of Coahuila y Tejas, with the Mexican government’s encouragement. In 1835 they rebelled against the Mexican government of Santa Anna because he rescinded the democratic Constitution of 1824, dissolved Mexico’s Congress and state legislatures, and asserted dictatorial control over the nation. After capturing a few small outposts and defeating the Mexican army garrisons in the area, the Texans formed a provisional government and drafted a Declaration of Independence.

Hundreds of volunteers from the United States of America headed into the fledgling Republic of Texas to assist in its quest for independence. Two full regiments of these volunteers were soon organized to augment the regular Texas army. Other volunteers (including Tejano and Texian colonists) organized into companies to defend places that might be targets of Mexican intervention. For example, American volunteers at San Jacinto included the Kentucky Rifles, a uniformed company raised in Cincinnati and northern Kentucky by Sidney Sherman, who were the only troops in the Texian militia that wore formal uniforms. The New Orleans Greys, another company raised in the United States, had fought and died at the Battle of the Alamo while serving under a regular Texas army officer, while two companies from Alabama (one each from Huntsville and Mobile) fought and died at Goliad.

In 1836, Santa Anna personally led a force of about 3,000–5,000 Mexican troops into what is now Texas to put down the insurrection. He first entered San Antonio de Béxar and, after a 13-day siege, defeated and slaughtered a Texan force on March 6, 1836 at the Alamo. The right wing of Santa Anna’s offensive, under General José de Urrea, then defeated, captured, and murdered the survivors of a second force near Goliad after disarming them. Santa Anna ordered the prisoners (about 350) to be shot or bayoneted on March 27 (Palm Sunday). Gen. Urrea resisted the orders at first and sent a special message to Santa Anna to confirm the order, which Santa Anna upheld. Urrea refused to shoot the Texian doctors – since they had not carried arms – and eventually released them. A practical problem was how to shoot 350 prisoners of war. To do so he told them that they were being moved under guard to a new location. When moving down the road prisoners moved single file on the right with a Mexican guard to his left. At a signal on the road, each guard turned and slew his man, some with rifle, others with sword or bayonet. In the melee twenty eight prisoners escaped and six carried the tale to Sam Houston’s militia, and this became known as the Goliad massacre. At the Battle of San Jacinto, both the cries of "Remember the Alamo!" and "Remember Goliad!" were heard. The fortress where the prisoners were held for one week before execution is today in excellent repair and is the finest example of a Mexican fort in the United States. It is called Presidio de la Bahia and is near present day Goliad TX.

Houston, in command of the main Texan militia, slowly retreated eastward. To President David G. Burnet, no admirer of Houston’s, Houston appeared unwilling to fight his pursuer, despite Burnet’s frequent orders that Houston do so. Texas settlers jeered Houston as he passed and his officers threatened to seize command. Houston in reply said he would shoot anyone who tried. Concerned that the Mexican Army was rapidly approaching unchecked, Burnet and the Texas government abandoned the provisional capital at Washington-on-the-Brazos and moved towards the Gulf of Mexico, reestablishing key governmental functions in Harrisburg and later Galveston. In their wake, thousands of panicked colonists (both Texian and Tejano) fled in what became popularly known as the "Runaway Scrape".

Houston initially headed toward the Sabine River, the border with the United States, where a Federal army under General Pendleton Gaines had assembled to protect Louisiana if Santa Anna decided to invade the U.S. However, Houston soon turned to southeast toward Harrisburg.

Santa Anna pursued Houston and devised a plan in which three columns of Mexican soldiers would converge on Houston’s force and destroy it. However, he diverted one column in an attempt to capture the provisional government, and a second to protect his supply lines. Santa Anna personally led the remaining column of about 900 troops against Houston. He caught up with Houston on April 19 near Lynch’s Ferry. Forced to cross Vince’s Bridge, he established positions on less than 3 sq mi (8 km2) of ground completely surrounded by the San Jacinto River (Texas), the flooded Buffalo and Vince Bayous, and marshes and bay on the east and southeast. Houston established his camp on a grassy field 1,000 yards (914 m) away.

    
Prelude to Battle

Believing Houston to be cornered, Santa Anna decided to rest his army on April 19 and attack on April 22. He received roughly 500 reinforcements under General Martín Perfecto de Cos, bringing his total strength up to roughly 1,400 men (2 Battalions = 2 Regiments). Santa Anna posted Cos to his right, near the river, and posted his last artillery in the center, erecting a five-foot (1.5 m) high barricade of packs and baggage as hastily constructed protection for his infantry. He placed his veteran cavalry on his left flank and settled back to plan the following day’s attack.

On the morning of April 21, Houston held a council of war, and the majority of his officers favored waiting for Santa Anna’s eventual assault. Houston, however, decided in favor of his own surprise attack that afternoon, concerned that Santa Anna might use the extra time to concentrate his scattered army. With his army of roughly 900 men, he decided to attack Santa Anna. Most of the assault would come over open ground, where the Texan infantry would be vulnerable to Mexican gunfire. Even riskier, Houston decided to outflank the Mexicans with his cavalry, stretching his troops even thinner. However, Santa Anna made a crucial mistake — during his army’s afternoon siesta, he failed to post sentries or skirmishers around his camp.

Houston soon gained approval for his daring plan from Texas Secretary of War Thomas J. Rusk, who had caught up with the militia to consult with Houston at the insistence of President Burnet. By 3:30 p.m., Houston had formed his men into battle lines for the impending assault, screened from Mexican view by trees and by a slight ridge that ran across the open prairie between the opposing armies. Santa Anna’s failure to properly post lookouts proved fatal to his chances of victory.

    
Battle

At 4:30 p.m. on April 21, scout Deaf Smith (pronounced "Deef Smith") announced the burning of Vince’s Bridge, which cut off the only avenue of retreat for both armies without having to cross water more than 10 feet (3.0 m) deep. The main Texan battle line moved forward with their approach screened by the trees and rising ground. Emerging from the woods, the order was given to "advance" and a fifer began playing the popular tune "Will you come to the bower I have shaded for you?" General Houston personally led the infantry, posting the 2nd Volunteer Regiment of Colonel Sidney Sherman together with Juan Seguin’s men on his far left, with Colonel Edward Burleson’s 1st Volunteer Regiment next in line. In the center, two small brass (or iron) smoothbore artillery pieces (donated by citizens of Cincinnati, Ohio) known as the "Twin Sisters," (replicas pictured right) were wheeled forward under the command of Major George W. Hockley. They were supported by four companies of infantry under Captain Henry Wax Karnes. Colonel Henry Millard’s regiment of Texas regulars made up the right wing. To the extreme far right, 61 Texas cavalrymen under newly promoted Colonel Mirabeau B. Lamar planned to circle into the Mexicans’ left flank.[7] Lamar had, the day before, been a private in the cavalry but his daring and resourcefulness in a brief skirmish with the Mexicans on April 20 had led to his immediate promotion to colonel.

Twin_Sisters,_San_Jacinto"Twin Sisters" (replicas). A gift of the
people of Cincinnati, the original guns
were last seen in 1865.
    

The Texan militia moved quickly and silently across the high-grass plain, and then, when they were only a few dozen yards away, charged Santa Anna’s camp shouting "Remember the Alamo!" and "Remember Goliad!," only stopping a few yards from the Mexicans to open fire. The Texans achieved complete surprise. It was a bold attack in broad daylight but its success can be attributed in good part to Santa Anna’s failure to post guards during the army’s siesta. Santa Anna’s army primarily consisted of professional soldiers, but they were trained to fight in ranks, exchanging volleys with their opponents. The Mexicans were ill-prepared and unarmed at the time of the sudden attack. Most were asleep with their soldaderas (i.e., wives and female soldiers), some were out gathering wood, and the cavalrymen were riding bareback fetching water. General Manuel Fernández Castrillón desperately tried to mount an organized resistance, but was soon shot down and killed. His panicked troops fled, and Santa Anna’s defensive line quickly collapsed.

San-jacinto-battle-map2-1500Battle of San Jacinto Map
    

Hundreds of the demoralized and confused Mexican soldiers were routed, with many being driven into the marshes along the river to drown. The Texans chased after the fleeing enemy, shouting "take prisoners like the Meskins do!", in reference to the burning of bodies after the Alamo and the mass murder of Texans at Goliad. Some of the Mexican cavalry plunged into the flooded stream by Vince’s bridge but they were shot as they struggled in the water. Houston tried to restrain his men but was ignored. Gen. Juan Almonte, commanding what was left of the organized Mexican resistance, soon formally surrendered his 400 remaining men to Rusk. The rest of Santa Anna’s once-proud army had disintegrated into chaos. From the moment of the first charge the battle was a slaughter, "frightful to behold", with most of the Texan casualties coming in the first minutes of battle from the first Mexican volley.

During the short but furious fighting, Houston was shot in the left ankle, two of his horses were shot from under him, and Santa Anna escaped. The combat itself lasted 18 minutes but the slaughter of the Mexicans continued for "another hour or so". The Texan militia had won a stunning victory, killing about 700 Mexican soldiers, wounding 208, and taking 730 prisoners while suffering 9 killed and 30 wounded.

    
Aftermath

During the battle, Santa Anna disappeared and a search party consisting of James A. Sylvester, Washington H. Secrest, Sion R. Bostick, and a Mr. Cole was sent out the next morning. However, Santa Anna shed his ornate uniform to elude discovery. It was not until he was saluted as "El Presidente" that suspicion was narrowed. Unfortunately for Santa Anna, it was well known that he wore silk underwear. So, when it was discovered that this same person who had been saluted was also wearing silk underwear, the Texans knew they had captured Santa Anna. Houston spared his life, preferring to negotiate an end to the overall hostilities and the withdrawal from Texas of Santa Anna’s remaining columns.

SantaAnnaSurrenderThe painting "Surrender of Santa Anna" by William Huddle shows the Mexican
General Santa Anna surrendering to a wounded Sam Houston.
This scene was recreated for the movies The Alamo and
James A. Michener’s Texas
    

On May 14, 1836, Santa Anna signed the Treaties of Velasco, in which he agreed to withdraw his troops from Texan soil and, in exchange for safe conduct back to Mexico, lobby there for recognition of the new republic. There were 2 treaties, a private treaty and a public treaty. In the private treaty, Santa Anna pledged to try to persuade Mexico to acknowledge Texas’ independence, in return for an escort back to Mexico. However, the safe passage never materialized; Santa Anna was held for six months as a prisoner of war (during which time his government disowned him and any agreement he might enter into) and finally taken to Washington, D.C. There he met with President Andrew Jackson, before finally returning in disgrace to Mexico in early 1837. By then, however, Texas independence was a fait accompli, although Mexico did not officially recognize it until the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican-American War in 1848.

    

    

Please take time to further explore more about Sam Houston, Antonio
López de Santa Anna, Battle of San Jacinto, Texas Revolution, Texas
Annexation, and the Texas Declaration of Independence
by accessing
the Wikipedia articles referenced below. In most cases, the text in the
body of this post has been selectively excerpted from the articles;
footnotes and hyperlinks have been removed for readability

    

References

    

    
Other Events on this Day:

  • In 1789…
    John Adams takes the oath to become the first U.S. vice president.

  • In 1832…
    Abraham Lincoln enlists to serve in the Black Hawk War and is elected captain of his militia company.

  • In 1836…
    Texans win independence from Mexico when forces led by Sam Houston defeat General Santa Anna’s army at San Jacinto
    .

  • In 1856…
    A train crosses the Mississippi River for the first time on a new bridge connecting Rock Island, Illinois, and Davenport, Iowa.

  • In 1918…
    Manfred von Richthofen, the notorious German fighter pilot better known as the Red Baron, is shot down by the Allies over Vaux-sur-Somme, France, having downed a record 80 enemy aircraft during World War I.

  • In 1942…
    Butch O’Hare receives the Medal of Honor.

  • In 1956…
    Elvis Presley hits #1 on the Billboard charts for the first time with “Heartbreak Hotel”.

  • 1980…
    Rosie Ruiz crosses the finish line at the Boston Marathon after 2 hours 31 minutes 56 seconds, appearing to set the women’s record for the grueling race. Ruiz will be stripped of her victory eight days later, when race officials discover she entered the course only a mile from the finish line. Jacqueline Gareau of Canada is belatedly awarded first place.

  • In 1997…
    Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry and psychedelic psychologist Timothy Leary are among the two dozen people whose ashes are launched into space on a modified Pegasus rocket in the first known “space burial.”

    

Dates and events based on:

William J. Bennett and John Cribb, (2008) The American Patriot’s Almanac Daily Readings on America. (Kindle Edition)

    

Background information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Sam Houston…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Houston

Wikipedia: Antonio López de Santa Anna…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_L%C3%B3pez_de_Santa_Anna

Wikipedia: Battle of San Jacinto…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_San_Jacinto

Wikipedia: Texas Revolution…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Revolution

Wikipedia: Texas Annexation…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Annexation

Wikipedia: Texas Declaration of Independence…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Declaration_of_Independence

Brainy Quote: SAM HOUSTON Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/s/sam_houston.html

    

Other Posts on related Topics:

Prof. Boerner’s Exploration: Battle of the Alamo: Battle Cry of the Texas Revolution…
http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=17209

Prof. Boerner’s Exploration: Battle of the Alamo: Combatants in the Quest of Independence…
http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=17229

Prof. Boerner’s Exploration: President Tyler Signs Bill to Annex Texas to the U.S.…
http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=17344

    

Please take time to further explore more about Sam Houston, Antonio
López de Santa Anna, Battle of San Jacinto, Texas Revolution, Texas
Annexation, and the Texas Declaration of Independence
by accessing
the Wikipedia articles referenced below. In most cases, the text in the
body of this post has been selectively excerpted from the articles;
footnotes and hyperlinks have been removed for readability

    

References

    

    
Other Events on this Day:

  • In 1789…
    John Adams takes the oath to become the first U.S. vice president.

  • In 1832…
    Abraham Lincoln enlists to serve in the Black Hawk War and is elected captain of his militia company.

  • In 1836…
    Texans win independence from Mexico when forces led by Sam Houston defeat General Santa Anna’s army at San Jacinto
    .

  • In 1856…
    A train crosses the Mississippi River for the first time on a new bridge connecting Rock Island, Illinois, and Davenport, Iowa.

  • In 1918…
    Manfred von Richthofen, the notorious German fighter pilot better known as the Red Baron, is shot down by the Allies over Vaux-sur-Somme, France, having downed a record 80 enemy aircraft during World War I.

  • In 1942…
    Butch O’Hare receives the Medal of Honor.

  • In 1956…
    Elvis Presley hits #1 on the Billboard charts for the first time with “Heartbreak Hotel”.

  • 1980…
    Rosie Ruiz crosses the finish line at the Boston Marathon after 2 hours 31 minutes 56 seconds, appearing to set the women’s record for the grueling race. Ruiz will be stripped of her victory eight days later, when race officials discover she entered the course only a mile from the finish line. Jacqueline Gareau of Canada is belatedly awarded first place.

  • In 1997…
    Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry and psychedelic psychologist Timothy Leary are among the two dozen people whose ashes are launched into space on a modified Pegasus rocket in the first known “space burial.”

    

Dates and events based on:

William J. Bennett and John Cribb, (2008) The American Patriot’s Almanac Daily Readings on America. (Kindle Edition)

    

Background information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Sam Houston…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Houston

Wikipedia: Antonio López de Santa Anna…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_L%C3%B3pez_de_Santa_Anna

Wikipedia: Battle of San Jacinto…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_San_Jacinto

Wikipedia: Texas Revolution…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Revolution

Wikipedia: Texas Annexation…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Annexation

Wikipedia: Texas Declaration of Independence…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Declaration_of_Independence

Brainy Quote: SAM HOUSTON Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/s/sam_houston.html

    

Other Posts on related Topics:

Prof. Boerner’s Exploration: Battle of the Alamo: Battle Cry of the Texas Revolution…
http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=17209

Prof. Boerner’s Exploration: Battle of the Alamo: Combatants in the Quest of Independence…
http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=17229

Prof. Boerner’s Exploration: President Tyler Signs Bill to Annex Texas to the U.S.…
http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=17344

    

Please take time to further explore more about Sam Houston, Antonio
López de Santa Anna, Battle of San Jacinto, Texas Revolution, Texas
Annexation, and the Texas Declaration of Independence
by accessing
the Wikipedia articles referenced below. In most cases, the text in the
body of this post has been selectively excerpted from the articles;
footnotes and hyperlinks have been removed for readability

    

References

    

    
Other Events on this Day:

  • In 1789…
    John Adams takes the oath to become the first U.S. vice president.

  • In 1832…
    Abraham Lincoln enlists to serve in the Black Hawk War and is elected captain of his militia company.

  • In 1836…
    Texans win independence from Mexico when forces led by Sam Houston defeat General Santa Anna’s army at San Jacinto
    .

  • In 1856…
    A train crosses the Mississippi River for the first time on a new bridge connecting Rock Island, Illinois, and Davenport, Iowa.

  • In 1918…
    Manfred von Richthofen, the notorious German fighter pilot better known as the Red Baron, is shot down by the Allies over Vaux-sur-Somme, France, having downed a record 80 enemy aircraft during World War I.

  • In 1942…
    Butch O’Hare receives the Medal of Honor.

  • In 1956…
    Elvis Presley hits #1 on the Billboard charts for the first time with “Heartbreak Hotel”.

  • 1980…
    Rosie Ruiz crosses the finish line at the Boston Marathon after 2 hours 31 minutes 56 seconds, appearing to set the women’s record for the grueling race. Ruiz will be stripped of her victory eight days later, when race officials discover she entered the course only a mile from the finish line. Jacqueline Gareau of Canada is belatedly awarded first place.

  • In 1997…
    Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry and psychedelic psychologist Timothy Leary are among the two dozen people whose ashes are launched into space on a modified Pegasus rocket in the first known “space burial.”

    

Dates and events based on:

William J. Bennett and John Cribb, (2008) The American Patriot’s Almanac Daily Readings on America. (Kindle Edition)

    

Background information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Sam Houston…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Houston

Wikipedia: Antonio López de Santa Anna…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_L%C3%B3pez_de_Santa_Anna

Wikipedia: Battle of San Jacinto…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_San_Jacinto

Wikipedia: Texas Revolution…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Revolution

Wikipedia: Texas Annexation…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Annexation

Wikipedia: Texas Declaration of Independence…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Declaration_of_Independence

Brainy Quote: SAM HOUSTON Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/s/sam_houston.html

    

Other Posts on related Topics:

Prof. Boerner’s Exploration: Battle of the Alamo: Battle Cry of the Texas Revolution…
http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=17209

Prof. Boerner’s Exploration: Battle of the Alamo: Combatants in the Quest of Independence…
http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=17229

Prof. Boerner’s Exploration: President Tyler Signs Bill to Annex Texas to the U.S.…
http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=17344