Skip to content

Prof. Boerner's Explorations

Thoughts and Essays that explore the world of Technology, Computers, Photography, History and Family.

Archive

Tag: Abraham Lincoln

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbOn this day we have seen some major events that have affected the history not only of our own country, but of the family of nations as well. Some of these events were happy ones, like the first Mardi Gras celebrated in New Orleans in 1827. Others dealt with war and preparations for war. Domestically, in 1776 the Continental Congress established the Continental Navy which has grown into the most powerful on earth. On this day in 1991, President George H.W. Bush announced the end of hostilities during the First Gulf War and Operation Desert Storm. But in Germany, in 1933, we witnessed the burning of the seat of the German Parliament, the Reichstag, in Berlin; Chancellor Adolf Hitler blamed it on communists and took the opportunity to declare marshal law. World War II was the consequence of the Nazi leadership’s power grab.

Reichstag Fire

We have seen some important civil rights events occur as well. In 1860, in New York City, Abraham Lincoln delivered his Cooper union speech condemning slavery. This speech brought him to national prominence and led to his election as President of the United States later that year. Also on this day, in 1872, a young African American woman, Charlotte E. Ray, graduated from Howard University and becoming the first African American woman to become a lawyer in this country. She would later  become the first woman admitted to practice law in Washington.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 860 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Reichstag:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/reichstag.html ]

    

“In 1930 I became a member of the Reichstag.”
— Hans Frank

“I was lucky because on the morning after the burning of the Reichstag I left my home very early to catch a train to Berlin for the conference of our student organization and that is the only reason why I escaped arrest.”
— Klaus Fuchs

“If there’s another 9/11 or a major war in the Middle-East involving a U.S. attack on Iran, I have no doubt that there will be, the day after or within days an equivalent of a Reichstag fire decree that will involve massive detentions in this country.”
— Daniel Ellsberg

“It was also my idea that the advisory committees of the Academy should replace the legal committees of the German Reichstag, which was gradually fading into the background in the Reich.”
— Hans Frank

“Now, to describe the process of the Wrapped Reichstag, which went from 1971 to ’95, there is an entire book about that, because each one of our projects has its own book. The book is not an art book, meaning it’s not written by an art historian.”
— Christo

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThe big events of today in history are the Battle of the Alamo in 1836 and the raising the American flag over the volcanic peak of Mount Suribachi on the desolate Pacific island of Iwo Jima in 1945. Both of these battles were costly in terms of American lives but were fought for vastly different reasons. The Alamo’s defenders represented those brave Americans who had settled in the Texas territory that belonged to the Republic of Mexico; it was part of the attempt to establish a new, independent republic in Texas. These defenders were greatly outnumbered by the forces of General Santa Ana.

6693712895_f0066af024_o

In the Battle for Iwo Jima, our American marines were attempted to take this volcanic atoll from the Japanese in order to set up air bases for the new Boeing B-29s that could carry the air war to the Japanese home islands. These bases were needed by the Army Air Force, but the Japanese defenders fought hard in the defense of the island. On this day, a group of Marines fought their way to the top of Mount Suribachi, the highest point on the island, and raised the American Stars and Stripes; this image became the iconic representation of the island-hopping battles across the Pacific. Within weeks, most of the Marines who had taken this high ground, including the photographer, were dead. Long may we cherish their memory and sacrifice.

Other events of the day included advances in both science and civil rights. In 1857, the German physicist, Heinrich Hertz, was born in Hamburg, Germany. Hertz would be the first person to demonstrate the broadcasting and receiving of electromagnetic waves, radio waves, to the world. This discovery enabled Marconi to build the first radio for which Marconi received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909. On the home front, school children in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, received the first vaccinations against polio using the vaccine developed by Jonas Salk. This was the beginning of the end of the disease that had disfigured so many, including our President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in previous years.

Eleanor_Roosevelt,_Albert_Sabin,_Jonas_Salk,_and_Basil_O'Connor_at_The_Infantile_Paralysis_Hall_of_Fame_in_Warm_Springs,_Georgia

These were two major advances in science that have changed our world. We no longer have hospitals filled with “iron lungs” to keep unfortunate individuals stricken by polio. And who can imagine a world without radio? Remember, the wireless network connections that we have in cafes, hotels, and our homes would not exist without the pioneering work on radio waves done be Heinrich Hertz. And our cell phones, as well, benefit from this technology.

On the civil rights front, Frank E. Petersen, Jr., a U.S. Marine, was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General (1 Star) in 1979. He became the first Black marine to reach such a rank; he would reach the rank of Lieutenant General (3 Stars) by the time he retired in 1988. One might react with surprise that it has taken so long for a talented Black man to reach such a rank if it were not so sad. We must always be aware of the need to recognize talent where it lies, disregarding color or gender lines!

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1161 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Davy Crockett:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/d/davy_crockett.html ]

    

“Be always sure you are right – then go ahead.”
— Davy Crockett

“I have always supported measures and principles and not men.”
— Davy Crockett

“I would rather be beaten, and be a man, than to be elected and be a little puppy dog.”
— Davy Crockett

“Heaven knows that I have done all that a mortal could do, to save the people, and the failure was not my fault, but the fault of others.”
— Davy Crockett

“The enemy fought with savage fury, and met death with all its horrors, without shrinking or complaining: not one asked to be spared, but fought as long as they could stand or sit.”
— Davy Crockett

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbToday we find some extremely consequential events appearing on our calendar of the past. These include one earthshaking international event and two overwhelming domestic events. The international event provided for the eventual declaration of this day as “International Holocaust Remembrance Day” by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 60/7 in 2005 in memory of those Jews exterminated in the Nazi death camps. What was the event? Today, in 1945, the Russian Army, in its march across southern Poland, entered a concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau and found the remains of dead Jewish bodies in piles waiting for the crematoria.

Auschwitz,_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden

Auschwitz was actually a complex of three camps. Auschwitz-Birkenau was the main death camp while the others were work camp in which the Jews, Roma (Gypsies), and other “Undesirables” were starved, worked hard, and subject to medical experiments by madmen like Dr. Mengele. As the railcars of “deportees” entered the camps, they were sorted into those who were to go directly to the death chambers (women, children, and elderly) and those who would go to the work camps to be worked to death. The exterminations camps were part of Hitler’s “Final Solution to the Jewish Problem” that would efficiently eliminate the Jewish population from the Third Reich. This pogrom was under the supervision of the Minister of the Interior, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. Those destined for immediate extermination were undressed, herded into showers, and killed with poison gas. Their bodies would then be taken to the crematoria for “disposal.” These camps, along with others throughout Eastern Europe and Germany were a secret to outsiders until the Red Army entered Auschwitz. The world was shocked!

This day also witnessed another international event that had importance to the United States, the signing of the Paris Peace Accords in 1973. These Accords were to formally ended the Vietnam War between the North Vietnamese (and their proxy in the the south, the Viet Cong) and the U.S. Vietnam became a communist state after these Accords, our removed our troops and had our POWs released. The actual end of the conflict did not occur until two years later, however. The troops and POWs returned to an America that was severely conflicted over a war that seemed to lack direction or a will to win.

Bruce_Crandalls_UH1D

Our involvement started during the Eisenhower administration after the French forces were defeated at Dien Bien Phu in 1954. The country was partitioned into a Northern (Communist) Regime and a Southern (Democratic) Regime. Free elections were to be held in the South in 1955, but were cancelled by the U.S. when it appeared that the communists would win. Our troops were involved there started as military advisors and then in the summer of 1965 escalated into active involvement after the Gulf of Tonkin incident. We apparently didn’t learn our lesson about fighting a war of independence for a goal (Democracy) that the native population of a country didn’t necessarily want. We were bogged down in jungle fighting with guerrillas defending their homeland; the lesson from Vietnam was apparently not learned by our leaders when President George W. Bush sent our troops into Iraq and Afghanistan to install democratic form of government.

On the domestic scene we have two incidents that “grab” our attention. The one of more immediate importance to our contemporary generations is the Tragedy of Apollo 1 in 1967. Our nation was challenged by our new, young President, John F. Kennedy, in 1961 to send a man to the moon and return him safely to Earth within the decade of the 1960s. My generation took this challenge to heart and set off on the quest to conquer space. We received a wake-up call in 1957 when the Soviet Union sent into Earth Orbit an artificial satellite, Sputnik I. When Kennedy gave us his challenge, no man had escaped the Earth atmosphere, although some of our test pilots had approached that goal. We launched our first astronaut, Alan Shepard, into Sub-Orbital Space in a Mercury capsule (the Freedom 7) in 1961. We launched a pair of astronauts, “Gus” Grissom and John Young, in a Gemini capsule in 1963 into Earth Orbit. We were making progress and learning about the mechanics and technologies necessary to send a set of men to the moon. In 1967, we were ready to launch three astronauts on the first test of a new capsule, the Apollo capsule, using the Saturn rocket, whose first stage was based heavily on the design of the German V2 developed by Wehrner von Braun for the Nazis. The Apollo 1 was to launch “Gus” Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee; while they were undergoing a pre-flight test of the capsule environment, a spark in the capsule ignited the pure oxygen environment and these three astronauts were lost.

5927_NASA

This event would require adjustments to the capsule environment and other launch procedures. Eventually, we accomplished the goal set for our nation by the former President John F. Kennedy. The Apollo 11 would carry three astronauts into space; the “lucky” astronauts were Neil Armstrong, “Buzz” Aldrin, and Jim Lovell to the moon in 1969. On July 20, 1969, while many of us sat in the comfort of our living rooms our TVs allowed us to watch as Neil Armstrong emerged from the Lunar Module and stepped onto the moon for the first time. We thrilled when he spoke those famous words, “That’s one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.” We had mastered the technologies, engineering, and practical problems to carry out this dream of man. Ironically, the details of the launch of the Apollo 11 and that of the science fiction account of Jules Verne novel From the Earth to the Moon in most respects; the one major point of departure was that Verne had his astronauts launched by a large gun instead of on a rocket; rockets were merely fireworks in Verne’s day!

Another significant event on this day, one that has probably had more long term impact upon our nation and society, was a speech given by a young, backwoods lawyer from Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, to a group of young men at the Young Men’s Lyceum in Springfield, Missouri in 1838. The future president of the U.S. would emphasize to these young men the importance of the rule of law in our country. This emphasis upon the law would be applied by President Lincoln to even those states that had seceded from the Union to form the Confederacy. Lincoln still considered them as part of the Union and directed his generals during our Civil War with that guiding principle still in mind. When he signed the Emancipation Proclamation in January, 1863, he freed the slaves in those seceding states by executive order; the African Americans held as slaves in those states were freed from their bondage.

Lee_Surrenders_to_Grant_at_Appomattox

When General Grant accepted the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865, he did so without the need of a treaty — the prodigal son had returned home. When his troops surrendered, they were permitted to keep their arms since they were still citizens of this nation. They were under the rule of law. We all know that the Civil War did not end all injustices to minority groups in this country. Women still were considered the “property” of their husbands and did not have the vote or equal rights with men. African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and the Native American Indians would not realize their full role as Americans until another one hundred years had passed. But the rule of law still prevailed and full rights were eventually gained by all citizens under the U.S. Constitution and its amendments. The message the young Abraham Lincoln delivered this day in 1838 still rings true — we are all covered by the rule of law!

In summation, this is a day that has witnessed a great deal of the brutality of man against his/her fellow man. We have witnessed the discrimination of slavery and the women in our society. We have witnessed also on this day the brutality of man against man when ideologies clash, such as in Vietnam and later in Iraq and Afghanistan. But it was brought into its clearest focus by the revelation of the Nazi Holocaust and death camps such as Auschwitz that were designed to carry out Hitler’s “Final Solution” to attempt the total genocide of the Jews. These Jews served as scapegoats for the perceived economic woes of Germany, but they might as well have been the African American slaves in the South, the American Indians removed from their ancestral lands in this country and, more recently, the Muslim minorities in the former Yugoslavian states. Discrimination and inhumanity has been carried out against women for centuries, depriving them of any property rights because they, themselves, were considered the property of their fathers or husbands. We are making progress, but we need to always remain vigilant to the abuses of power.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1954 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Thomas Edison:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/t/thomas_a_edison.html ]

    

“Everything comes to him who hustles while he waits.”
— Thomas Edison

“Genius is 1 percent inspiration, and 99 percent perspiration…”
— Thomas Edison

“We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles.”
— Thomas Edison

“There is no expedient to which a man will not resort to avoid the real labor of thinking.”
— Sir Joshua Reynolds

“Shucks, we haven’t failed. Now we know a thousand things that won’t work, so we’re that much closer to finding what will.”
— Thomas Edison

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbWe have featured several postings on this day from the 19th century. Starting with the opening of Ellis Island in New York Harbor for the screening of immigrants to the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation by President Abraham Lincoln to the discovery and study of X-Rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in the closing days of that century. These events are ironically tried together and found their fulfillment in the Manhattan Project during World War II.

Manhattan_Project_US_Map

All of these events enabled the migration of individuals to this country to participate in the great expansion of knowledge that occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries. During the 19th century this was manifest in the development of innovations and technologies to increase the productivity of our farms and discovering new technologies. During the 20th century, this was manifested by the immigration to this country by Jews and other groups persecuted by the European powers, especially Nazi Germany after 1933. Among these immigrants were many scientists, including Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, and others who entered through Ellis Island, were given equal rights with other Americans, and were able to pursue their studies and research in our country.

Many of this group of Jewish and eastern European scientists became part of the Manhattan Project that developed the Atomic Bomb. If it were not for the contributions of these individuals, we may not have been able to end World War II as soon as we did. America, the land of the free and the home of the brave, welcomed these immigrants with open arms and they made significant contributions to the freedom of their adopted country.

IH109120 (RM) TMH 07-16-2011

Let us remember them and their contributions. Let us not stop the flow of immigrants who might make similar contributions to our society in the future… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 769 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Enrico Fermi:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/e/enrico_fermi.html ]

    

“Ignorance is never better than knowledge.”
— Enrico Fermi

“It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge.”
— Enrico Fermi

“Before I came here I was confused about this subject. Having listened to your lecture I am still confused. But on a higher level.”
— Enrico Fermi

“The fundamental point in fabricating a chain reacting machine is of course to see to it that each fission produces a certain number of neutrons and some of these neutrons will again produce fission.”
— Enrico Fermi

“There are two possible outcomes: if the result confirms the hypothesis, then you’ve made a measurement. If the result is contrary to the hypothesis, then you’ve made a discovery.”
— Enrico Fermi

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbWhile the American Civil War was not a foreign war, it was of special significance to our nation. Foreign countries, notably Britain, were interested in supporting the Confederate States of America since it was a rich source of cotton and tobacco for Britain’s industrial machine. The Civil War ended up being the bloodiest wars in which our country has fought. It often pitted brother against brother or father against son; loyalties within families were often split.

Using naval blockades of ports, scorched-earth tactics, and the industrial strength of the Union, the General Robert E. Lee was forced to surrender in Appomattox Court House in 1865. General Ulysses S. Grant showed the courtesy of a gentleman and brother to the defeated soldiers. He provided them an honorable process. The nation had to be healed and revenge was not the path to reconciliation.

Dead Union soldier civil war

While the end of the war resulted in the assassination of President Lincoln, the formation of the KKK, and, in the west, marauding bands of ex-confederate soldiers, our country grew back together. It is too bad that the factions within our Congress and many state legislatures, such as California’s, will not take the lesson of the Civil War to hart — we are all Americans and we must get along with one another! Perhaps it’s not too late to see the reconciliation of the conservative Republicans and the liberal Democrats. Our country needs an operational set of government institutions, not ones dominated by ideology to the exclusion of progress.

So it is time, once again, to get on with our exploration of the key events leading us into Civil War. After all, it was this war that first led to the honoring of our fallen sons on the field of battle… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3351 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Veterans Day:

    

“If the Confederacy falls, there should be written on its tombstone: Died of a Theory.”
— Jefferson Davis

“Gen. Grant habitually wears an expression as if he had determined to drive his head through a brick wall and was about to do it.”
— A Union Soldier

“…arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction.”
— Abraham Lincoln

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

   

    

Commentary:

The National Mall is the site of our nation’s tribute to our leaders and warriors from our biggest wars. Today we are celebrating the building and dedication of the Lincoln Memorial. It reminds us of his greatness through his Statue and words from some of his greatest addresses. Included is the Gettysburg Address and his Second Inaugural Address. Located nearby are the World War II Veterans Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial , and Vietnam Veterans Memorial. This is a very consecrated site!

On this Memorial Day, let us take a minute to say a special prayer to thos dedicated soldiers from all of our past and present wars. We live in a free country because of the sacrifices made by the men celebrated by these memorials. Let us, above all, remember that ultimate sacrifice made by the great emancipator, Abraham Lincoln.

Lincoln_Memorial_1

“The National Mall is an open-area national park in downtown Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. The National Mall is a unit of the National Park Service (NPS), and is administered by the National Mall and Memorial Parks unit. The term "National Mall" commonly includes areas that are officially part of West Potomac Park and Constitution Gardens to the west, and often is taken to refer to the entire area between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol, with the Washington Monument providing a division slightly west of the center. The National Mall receives approximately 24 million visitors each year.”  (Wikipedia)

Now, let’s plunge into our exploration of the building and dedication of the Lincoln Memorial…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4109 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to MEMORIAL:

    

“And there’s the Victoria Memorial, built as a memorial to Victoria.”
— David Dimbleby

“Every memorial in its time has a different goal.”
— Maya Lin

“For famous men have the whole earth as their memorial.”
— Pericles

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoDay 1 of the Battle of Shiloh ended with the Confederate army having the advantage. Fighting ended an hour before sundown; it was thought that the next morning’s engagement would complete the South’s victory. But unknown to the Confederate Generals, Grant’s beleaguered army would receive reinforcements from Buell’s army. When the Southern forces began their attack the morning of Day 2, they were surprised by the strength of the Union lines.

As the battle progressed, the Union army prevailed and won the battle. This was the first major battle won by the Union Army. But Grant was criticized for his performance during the conflict and Sherman was criticized for his brutality. But Grant demonstrated one trait that was missing from other Generals: he was not afraid to attack! This characteristic eventually resulted un his appointment as the commander of the Army of the Potomac.

Battle_of_Shiloh_Thulstrup

Let’s take a look at the second day of the Battle of Shiloh now. We include in this exploration an examination of the Generals that augmented those noted on the first day of this battle…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3854 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to BATTLEFIELD:

    

“No study is possible on the battlefield.”
— Ferdinand Foch

“I have traveled a long road from the battlefield to the peace table.”
— Moshe Dayan

“There are a couple of roles I haven’t played that I want to. I would love to play Shiloh.”
— David Ogden Stiers

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoWhen one thinks about the American Civil War, the Battle at Shiloh takes center stage along side of Bull Run and Gettysburg. Its importance lies in the Southwest Tennessee region in the western side of the Appalachian Mountains and the Union’s victory here established the Union’s legitimacy in this region. It also helped to establish the career of Ulysses S. Grant as both a commanding General and as a leader.

Grant would soon be named the Commander in Chief of the Army of the Potomac by President Abraham Lincoln. But at Shiloh he demonstrated the battlefield skulls that had been lacking in previous commanders of the Union Army — the willingness to engage the enemy in battle. One the first day of this battle, the Confederates almost broke through Union lines, but Grant held them off. On the second day, the Union forces would overwhelm the Confederate forces to earn the Union army’s first major victory.

100_4130

Shiloh turned out to be one of the bloodiest battles f the Civil War. But beyond that, it was the battle that gave the Union forces access to the deep South where some of the largest plantations ere located. So, Shiloh had a two-fold impact on the war: it gave the Union access to the deep South and identified the leader who would eventually provide Lincoln with the strategic victory over the Confederacy and would become President of the U.S.

Now we need to plunge into the exploration of this Civil War battle…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3994 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to BATTLEFIELD:

    

“No study is possible on the battlefield.”
— Ferdinand Foch

“I have traveled a long road from the battlefield to the peace table.”
— Moshe Dayan

“There are a couple of roles I haven’t played that I want to. I would love to play Shiloh.”
— David Ogden Stiers

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoWhile it sounds like a rather mundane invention, Eli Whitney’s creation of the Cotton Engine, better known as the “Cotton Gin”, in 1793. He received a patent for his invention in 1794 on this day. He did not obtain his fortune from this device due to patent infringements; he did benefit financially from another invention, the use of interchangeable parts in guns! But the cotton gin provided some unexpected results.

Before the cotton gin, the process of separating the cotton fibers from its seed was very labor intensive. This made cotton less attractive to plantation owner than other crops. With the introduction of the cotton gin, cotton became a more attractive crop, especially in the deep south. This resulted in larger plantations, which required more slave labor. Thus, the cotton gin actually facilitated the use of the inhumane practice of slavery.

Cottonfieldpanorama-edited

Slavery was opposed by the industrial north, but the textile industry was dependent on the cotton produced as a result of the cotton gin. So this invention really was a two-headed sword, so to speak: it created an industry that was dependent on slave labor. Even during the Reconstruction period, African Americans and the poor white population in the deep south were in virtual slavery under the share-cropping arrangement by which they survived.

But it’s time to explore the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney and its effects on the industrial revolution and the institution of slavery…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4135 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to ELI WHITNEY:

    

“I have not only Arms but a large proportion of Armourers to make.”
— Eli Whitney

“I can make just such ones if I had tools, and I could make tools if I had tools to make them with.”
— Eli Whitney

“I have always believed that I should have had no difficulty in causing my rights to be respected.”
— Eli Whitney

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoAs we remember the elements of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, Slavery was prohibited in the western territories north of the parallel 36°30′ north. Slavery had previously been prohibited in the Northwest territories. So, when Dred Scott’s owner was assigned to posts in Illinois and Wisconsin, Dred Scott believed that he should be declared a free man. When his owner returned to Missouri, a Slave state, Scott filed a lawsuit for his freedom.

In 1837 Jackson was President and Taney was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Both Men were pro-slavery. In this context the court considered Dred Scott’s case. Through a series of suits, the high court did not hand down its decisions until this day in 1857. The net outcome was that Dred Scott did not have legal standing as a citizen, was not permitted to sue in the courts, and that parts of the Missouri Compromise were unconstitutional. This was a major setback for the abolitionists!

Buchanan's Inauguration 2003001r

Buchanan, President at the time of this decision, was satisfied with this decision. The Democrats had sought to eliminate the anti-slavery elements from the Missouri Compromise for years and here it was. Slavery would not be ended until the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments were added to the Constitution after the Civil War.

It’s time to jump into todays exploration of the Dred Scott Case and the three Presidents and Chief Justice so closely associated with it…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4145 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to SLAVERY:

    

“Slavery and freedom cannot exist together.”
— Ernestine L. Rose

“Slavery discourages arts and manufactures.”
— George Mason

“Slavery exists. It is black in the South, and white in the North.”
— Andrew Johnson

continue reading…