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Thoughts and Essays that explore the world of Technology, Computers, Photography, History and Family.

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Tag: Cold War

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis day, February 29th, has witnessed many significant events even though is occurs only once every four years. Several important political events have transpired on this day, including the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 17943 to end the resolve outstanding issues with Britain; this treaty was negotiated by a team led by John Jay who would go on to become the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Also on this day, in 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed a committee to study the building of the Panama Canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans through the Isthmus of Panama. During the 1960 Presidential Election campaign, Senator John F. Kennedy on this day in 1960 made the “Missile Gap” a campaign issue with the sitting Vice President, Richard Nixon.

HMS_Beagle_by_Conrad_Martens

This was also a day that saw Charles Darwin and the crew of the HMS Beagle in Bahia, Brazil; Darwin would continue exploring the flora and fauna of the nearby jungles. These observations were added to those taken on the Galápagos Islands and helped Darwin form his theory of evolution.

Also on this day in 1940, entertainment history was made. At the Academy Awards ceremony, not only would Gone with the Wind be honored as the Best Picture of the Year, and several of its stars earning their own Oscars, this night would witness the first Oscar awarded to an African American actress, Hattie McDaniel for her performance as the housemaid Mammy; Hattie and her escort were seated at a segregated table in the back of the room. Segregation was still alive and well at this late date!

Even in Major League Baseball there existed prejudice against the African Americans. On this day in 1972, Slugger Henry “Hank” Aaron broke Babe Ruth’s career home run record. As he approached this record, Aaron was the recipient of numerous death threats at the thought of a Black player eclipsing the feat performed by the iconic star, Babe Ruth. He was not attacked after breaking this record, fortunately.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1160 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Charles Darwin:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/c/charles_darwin.html ]

    

“A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life.”
— Charles Darwin

“A scientific man ought to have no wishes, no affections – a mere heart of stone.”
— Charles Darwin

“I am turned into a sort of machine for observing facts and grinding out conclusions.”
— Charles Darwin

“At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate, and replace the savage races throughout the world.”
— Charles Darwin

“I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created parasitic wasps with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of Caterpillars.”
— Charles Darwin

“I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term of Natural Selection.”
— Charles Darwin

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumb_thumb_thumbAmerica was challenged by its new, young President, John F. Kennedy, who at his inauguration called for the U.S. to put a man on the moon and return him safely to earth by the end of the 1960s. This was a major escalation of the space race that began when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I in 1957. The scientific, engineering, and manufacturing resources of America was directed towards this goal. I remember the pride that I felt when that first man stepped onto the lunar surface.

APOLLO 204 CREW TMH 01/27/2011

This quest to conquer space was not always successful. Launch vehicles failed, New technological solutions needed to be tweaked. scores of personnel needed to be trained. And a whole new science, telemetry, had to be developed. There were accidents happened; the worst of these occurred when three astronauts died in their command module of the Apollo 1 in 1967. The was a major, if temporary setback for the program.

But this problem was solved and man eventually did walk on the moon. We did achieve the goal presented to us by that President whose life was also lost to an assassin. You should check out my series on the Space Race; it is found under the “Emerging Technologies” menu tab. Many different developments needed to come together to accomplish this great goal.

When we look back at the contributions of the space program during the 1960s, we see amazing strides being made. I was in college at that time and saw these changes all around me. Living in Downey, California, put me near the nerve center of these advances, since North American Autonetics was just down the street. This was the company that designed and built the Apollo module. The computer brains behind the engineering and programming the onboard avionics for many of these missions. Much of the liquid Oxygen was generated in nearby Ontario and transported across the country by the trucking company I worked for during graduate school.

Oxygen_gas_truck_transport

At the beginning of the decades of the 1960s, computers were the devices that engineers operated. By the end of the 1960s, these devices became both more powerful and easier for the non-engineer to operate. At the beginning of the decade, telecommunications meant the telephones connected to AT&T, but by the end of the decade the first IMP (Internet Message Processor) had been delivered to UCLA, SRI, and the UC Santa Barbara campuses to test out the primitive ARPAnet that became the Internet two decades later. At the beginning of the decade found medical monitoring done with a stethoscope by a doctor, but by the end of the decade we had remote monitoring capability that allowed Mission Control to monitor the vital signs for astronauts in space. And, at the beginning of the decade computer-controlled systems required direct, hand-on manipulation while at the end of the decade new instructions could be sent the space vehicles hundreds of miles away. This was real progress brought about by the space program under NASA’s oversight.

Yes, on that terrible day in January of 1967 we lost three well-trained, good men in that capsule fire aboard the Apollo I module. But our space program was fortunate that these were the only deaths that we experienced during a decade of monumental progress. We don’t know how many, if any, Soviet cosmonauts were lost during their space program development; the Soviet’s maintained a closed society where any such losses were probably hidden to outsiders. We paid a small price for our successful landing on the moon.

But now its time to start our exploration of the Apollo 1 Program... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 2975 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Apollo:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/apollo.html ]

    

“He who commands an Apollo flight will not command a second one.”
— Wally Schirra

“At this point in my career, Apollo 13 is a million light years away.”
— Kathleen Quinlan

“Kennedy had made a mess in Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. He had to do something to look good. The Apollo program of going to the Moon was quite a goal.”
— Wally Schirra

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThe Vietnam Conflict was another of our undeclared wars. While the Korean and the Iraq Conflict (2002) were conducted by coalitions operating under United Security Council Mandates. Vietnam evolved from the First Indochina War between the French and Vietnamese communists under Ho Chi Minh. It became an American action under President Kennedy who provided military advisors to the non-communist government in Saigon, South Vietnam. Then, in the summer of 1965, President Johnson sent in large numbers of American troops under the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, not a declaration of war.

On the face of it, we were in South Vietnam to prevent it from from falling to the communist insurgent Viet Cong. The theory was that if Vietnam fell to the communists, it would be the start of a domino effect throughout southeast Asia. We fought in those jungles until 1975, when we brought our forces home.

B-52D(061127-F-1234S-017)

After being involved in South Vietnam for at least fifteen years, our pull-out caused some problems. Those Vietnamese who had worked for the American forces in the country tried to escape in any way they could; they became the “boat people” who resettled in the United States as well as Australia. They have become good citizens and assets to the communities into which they settled. While Vietnam is still trying to become responsible citizens in the family of nations, it has far to go. However, it is trying to build its infrastructure and educate its citizens, as I saw first-hand when I was there in 1996 on a teaching assignment.

If you are interested in more detail than I could provide in this space, please check the Reference section below. Vietnam has been fighting one war against foreign occupiers for decades. But, it is again time to launch into our exploration of the Vietnam War… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4965 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Vietnam War:

    

“You can kill ten of my men for every one I kill of yours, but even at those odds, you will lose and I will win.”
— Ho Chi Minh to the French, late 1940s

“If in order to avoid further Communist expansion in Asia and particularly in Indo-China, if in order to avoid it we must take the risk by putting American boys in, I believe that the executive branch of the government has to take the politically unpopular position of facing up to it and doing it, and I personally would support such a decision.”
— Richard M. Nixon, speech, April 16, 1954.

“You have a row of dominoes set up; you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is that it will go over very quickly.”
— Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1954

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThe Korean War if often referred to as the forgotten war. It was technically a police action not a declared war. It was the second battle between the superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, during the Cold War; the first battle was the Berlin Airlift (covered in a previous posting, http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=2443). The superpowers did not fight directly, but they supported smaller states in this proxy war. In this case, it was between North and South Korean, with the Peoples Republic of China supporting the North Koreans and the United Nations supporting the South Koreans.

This was a police action since it was carried out under a resolution of the United Nations Security Council. The resolution was passed when the representative of the Soviet Union withdrew from the session, thus eliminating their veto of the action. The Police action resulted in an agreement after the death of Joseph Stalin.

Korea_DMZ_sentry

The result of three years of conflict, and a high rate of death and injury. Many innovations were developed during this conflict, including the use of jet fighters, helicopters, and field hospitals (MASH units). These would again come into use during the Vietnam Conflict a decade later. It also resulted in a substantial increase in the number of soldiers whose lives were saved, but who lost limbs in the process. This created a high demand for prosthetic limbs, a technology that was only in its infancy prior to the conflict. It also resulted in the development of the Veterans Hospitals to serve these men during their rehabilitation.

But, now, let’s get started on on our brief exploration of the Korean War and its essential battles… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3645 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Veterans Day:

    

“My God, maybe there’s a real war going on!”
— Unknown American Soldier

“We thought the North Koreans would back off once they saw American uniforms.”
— Phil Day, Task Force Smith

“The wrong war, at the wrong place, at the wrong time, and with the wrong enemy.”
— Omar Bradley

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbThe Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 haunts our memories to this day. I remember people building bomb shelters in their back yards, supplying it with food for six or more months, and listening to radio and/or TV news broadcasts for an indication that Nikita Khrushchev had stations nuclear missiles in Cuba, only 90 miles from U.S. territory. Our U-2 spy planes discovered them on one of its photoreconnaissance flights. This triggered a crisis meeting in the President John F. Kennedy’s White House.

Much debate took place to determine a course of action. Adlai Stevenson, our U.N. Ambassador, took these photos to the Security Council to get their support for action. Kennedy finally called for a naval blockade of Cuba to prevent any additional supplies, missiles, or technicians from getting to Cuba. About two weeks of confrontation ended on this day with both sides agreeing to a mutual de-escalation.

U-2F_refueling_from_KC-135Q

The Cuban Missile Crisis was the fourth major confrontation of the Cold War. It had been preceded by the Berlin Blockade/Airlift, the Suez Canal Crisis, and the Yom Kippur War. This type of brinksmanship usually pitted proxy states against each other rather than a direct confrontation of the U.S. and Soviet Union. Each of these superpowers had sufficient nuclear weapons to assure that any conflict using these weapons would result in “Mutually Assured Destruction”.

But now it’s time to dive into our brief exploration of this important event of the Cold War. So, let’s proceed with a look, not so much at the crisis overall, but how this crisis was brought to a peaceful end… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3569 Words ]

    

Quotations Related to Missile:

    

“America must be a light to the world, not just a missile.”
— Nancy Pelosi

“As far as missile defense is concerned, a very thorough consultation process is underway.”
— Gerhard Schroder

“I feel like a nuclear missile. Point me in that direction, I’ll go.”
— George Dzundza

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

  

     

Commentary:

JerryPhotoFollowing this country’s long experience in the Pacific area of Asia, we were definitely seeking another shooting war. We were working with Europe to help them recover the devastation of World War II through the Marshall Plan. We had just survived the Berlin Airlift and now the was tension raising between North and South Korea. With unification elections schedule for 1960, we cancelled those election, which set off the North Korean who were expecting victory. (We would repeat this four years later in Vietnam!).

Chosin

This trigger the incursion of North Korean troops, wit their Chinese allies, into the south across the 38th Parallel. This prompted the South Koreans to appeal to the UN Security Council for help. But a Veto of the resolution by any of the Permanent Members (U.S., Britain, France, The Republic of China, and the Soviet Union) would result in no action. Since this Korean Police Action would become a Proxy War between the US and Soviet Union, the Soviets were expected to veto any action

But, the Soviet delegate became upset at the proceedings and withdrew from the meeting and the resolution was approved. On this date in 1950 President Harry Truman signed the order ground troops to join the United Nations peacekeepers. General Douglas MacArthur was sent to Korea to command operations.

“With both North and South Korea sponsored by external powers, the Korean War was a proxy war. From a military science perspective, it combined strategies and tactics of World War I and World War II: it began with a mobile campaign of swift infantry attacks followed by air bombing raids, but became a static trench war by July 1951.”  (Wikipedia)

Let’s proceed in our exploration of the start of US Military involvement in the Korean War… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4430 Words ]

  

Quotations Related to KOREAN:

  

“I got called back into the Navy during the Korean War.”
— Daniel J. Evans

“40 percent of North Korean children suffer from stunted growth. 20 percent are underweight.”
— Tom Lantos

“I don’t think the current regime of South Korea will deal actively with the issue of North Korean defectors.”
— Kim Y. Sam

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoFollowing the end of World War II two rival ideologies entered the conflict the we know as the “Cold War”. The Soviet Union took on their real persona, that of a world leader set on extending its influence over the emerging countries of Eastern Europe. As Winston Churchill observed in his famous "Sinews of Peace" speech at Westminster College: “…From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an ‘iron curtain’ has descended across the Continent.”

The lines of the Cold War were quickly drawn. Those countries in the Soviet block were united in a mutual defense pack, known as the Warsaw Pact. Those countries in Western Europe joined together in a mutual defense pack as well. This pack became known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO. When the Soviets tested their own atomic bomb in the latter 1940s, These weapons were deployed by both sides, assuring mutual destruction if either side used them. This created an uneasy standoff that spawned many “proxy wars” over the next forty years.

NATO_headquarters_in_Brussels_2010

An interesting perspective was presented by the first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, famously stated the organization’s goal was "to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down". With the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 the focus of this agreement had to adapt to a different world order, but NATO continues to have a function, as can be seen in Libya today!

So, let’s get on with our exploration…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3000 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to NATO:

    

“We welcome, we welcome this good cooperation between Russia and NATO.”
— Aleksander Kwasniewski

“For years, we have heard warnings that Europe needs to contribute more to NATO’s capability.”
— Lord Robertson

“The NATO forces will, to the extent that they have capacity, assist the war crimes tribunal.”
— Warren Christopher

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoThe one big case of Americans spying for the Soviet Union to come out of Joseph McCarthy’s Senate hearings was that of the Rosenbergs. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were found guilty (1951) and executed (1953) for passing secrets of the Atomic bomb designed and built by the Manhattan Project during World War II. Ethel’s brother worked on the Manhattan Project in New Mexico and is believed to have passed the info about “Fat Man” atomic bomb. This information was then passed on to Julius’ KGB handler.

The Rosenbergs were executed at Sing Sing Prison. Since their death, information has become available to shed more light on the issues. But the facts tend to indicate that the jury’s decision was well-based. The excesses of the Senate committee chaired by McCarthy and the HUAC committee in the house were real and a result of the anti-communist scare of the 1940s and 1950s.

Sing_Sing

Americans tend to exhibit a “Passionate State of Mind”, ala Eric Hoff. This leads us to extremist views, such as those associated with the “Tea Party” or “Moral Majority”. We need to keep a perspective on extremism at either end of the spectrum.

But, we must proceed to our exploration of today’s topic…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3463 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to JULIUS ROSENBERG:

    

“My opinion was that if we had a common enemy we should get together commonly.”
— Julius Rosenberg

“There was a possibility I could have been under surveillance.”
— Julius Rosenberg

“This death sentence is not surprising. It had to be.”
— Julius Rosenberg

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoRonald Reagan, when elected President in 1980, pursued an active campaign against world communism. This reversed the policy of containment first introduced in the Truman Doctrine after the second world war. The Cold War resulted from this policy, including the many Proxy Wars where the US and Ussr were represented in regional disputes like Korea War, the Suez Crisis, Vietnam, and, of course, the Space Race. This put off the need for the major powers to directly engage each other in battle.

When Reagan took office, he adopted the policy of the Escalation of the Cold War. This resulted in calls for the communist world to open up their borders. Reagan’s “Evil Empire” speech in 1983 before the National Association of Evangelicals in Orlando, Florida forcefully introduced this new policy. It ultimately led to Reagan’s call to the Soviet Premiere Gorbachev to “tear down this wall,” referring to the Berlin Wall. It also started a series of high-level summits to discuss their differences.

ReaganBerlinWall

This policy reached fruition during the Presidency of George H.W. Bush when the Berlin wall came down and those in the Soviet Blok were able to cross over into the west. The goal had been realized. Much credit must be given to President Reagan for this change.

Now we need to get started with our exploration of Reagan’s defined “Evil Empire” speech…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3973 Words ]

   

Quotations Related to EVIL:

    

“I do not believe in the God of theology who rewards good and punishes evil.”
— Albert Einstein

“It is a man’s own mind, not his enemy or foe, that lures him to evil ways.”
— Buddha

“Non-cooperation with evil is as much a duty as is cooperation with good.”
— Mohandas Gandhi

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoWinston Churchill was skeptical of Joseph Stalin’s motives as an Ally during World War II. This became especially evident during the “Big Three” conferences at Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam. While the western Allies (England, France and the United States) looked forward to establishing democratic governments in the eastern European states. On the other hand, Joseph Stalin sought to re-establish the Soviet sphere if influence previously enjoyed under the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of 1939.

When Germany surrendered in 1945, the Soviets moved to make their occupied lands in eastern Europe into permanent communist states. Thus the Warsaw Pact was born. When the Marshall Plan offered financial assistance to states setting up democratic governments, Stalin prevented any of the Warsaw Pact countries from accepting this aid. The “Iron Curtain” had fallen!

BE033127 TMH 02/10/2011

Churchill delivered his "Sinews of Peace" speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri on this day in 1946. In this speech he declared tat an “Iron Curtain” had fallen in Europe to isolate the eastern European lands from democracy. This started the “Cold War” that continued through 1989 when the Berlin Wall fell.

But, let’s start our exploration now…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4118 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to CURTAIN:

    

“Conscience is the window of our spirit, evil is the curtain.”
— Douglas Horton

“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”
— Winston Churchill

“From behind the Iron Curtain, there are signs that tyranny is in trouble and reminders that its structure is as brittle as its surface is hard.”
— Dwight D. Eisenhower

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