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Tag: Joseph Pulitzer

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis day, we celebrate the death of St. Patrick who brought Christianity to the Emerald Isle, Ireland. We celebrate this event by parades, wearing of the green and drinking green beer while eating corned beef & cabbage. This day also witnessed one of the first victories of the American patriots against the British in the Battle of Dorchester Heights where Col. Henry Knox performed his seemingly miraculous feat of moving cannons and powder from the captured Fort Ticonderoga to Boston almost overnight. The British, when confronted with these armaments, withdrew from Boston to New York.

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This was also a day of several naval accomplishments in submarine warfare; the first practical submarine (USS Holland) was launched on this day and the first of a new class (USS Skate) broke through the North Pole’s Ice Pack. It was also the day that saw the launch, by NASA, of the Vanguard 1 solar-powered satellite. In addition, Theodore Roosevelt recognized the effectiveness of investigative journalism by the "Muckrakers" in a speech to the Gridiron Club in Washington, D.C. Finally, this day witnessed the assumption of the position of Prime Minister by Golda Meir in Israel, the first woman in such a position in the world. So, let’s see these events in a little more detail…

History Details…

Irish_cloverOf course, the most notable event of today is the celebration of St. Patrick’s Day. How did this become a much-celebrated holiday? By the dispersion, borne of necessity, of the Irish around the world. But a substantial of that number settled in New York City and Boston. This day, the celebration of the death of the fabled saint in 461, St. Patrick, who ministered to the needs of the Irish for three decades in the fifth century. It is said that on this day, everyone is an Irishman!

At the beginning the Revolutionary War, the American patriots set up their lines on the high ground of Dorchester Heights in 1776. The problem, the British not only had greater numbers of trained troops, but they also had artillery. The American troops couldn’t compete with these cannons! One of the leaders of the patriots, in addition to Benedict Arnold, there was Col. Henry Knox who suggested that the cannons at Fort Ticonderoga could be captured and brought back to Cambridge to help the colonist soldiers defend the city of Boston. He led an expedition that easily captured the fort and brought back those cannons and powder to Boston. The British awoke to see lines of cannons facing them. The British would withdraw from Boston to New York City. This was the first victory for the Colonists; the British would defeat General George Washington in the Battle of New York shortly thereafter. The ability of the American soldiers to stand up against their British overlords was verified. The rebellion would continue!

Siege of boston artillery

On this day in 1969, the world witnessed the first woman assume the top position in a democratic country, Israel. On this date, Mrs. Golda Meir would assume the position of Prime Minister of Israel and lead the country through some turbulent times. She would distinguish herself in that position and take her seat among the family of nations. She was well prepared for the responsibilities to guide this small country surrounded by nations that wanted to wipe her little nation off the map. But, because of her leadership skills, they would not be able to wipe out Israel. Our country has had a pro-Israel position since the small country emerged following a United Nations resolution that established the nation within the Arab-dominated land of Palestine; Israel would become a haven for those Jews dislocated by the Nazis during World War II and SURVIVED the death camps! Hooray for Israel, and hooray for the female leadership of that feisty little nation that, like the scorpion, is small but has a big stinger.

TheJungleSinclair

In 1906, Theodore Roosevelt described for the first time the investigative journalist. These journalist, the "muckrakers," sought to reveal in the press the excesses of the "robber barons" of the day. This group included Ida M. Tarbell ("The History of Standard Oil"), Lincoln Steffens ("The Shame of Minneapolis") and Ray Stannard Baker ("The Right to Work"), simultaneously published famous works in that single issue (see Wikipedia article); Upton Sinclare (The Jungle) exposed the excessive abuses in the meat-packing industry. This group also included some of the major newspaper publishers of the day who used these stories to increase advertising and circulation revenues; included in this group of publishers were Edwin Lawrence Godkin of the New York Evening Post, Joseph Pulitzer (after whom the annual prize is named) of the New York World, and William Randolph Hearst of the San Francisco Examiner. Yellow Journalism is still alive and well, just watch your evening news!

The U.S. Navy celebrates two events in the submarine warfare department on this day during the past 100+ years. In 1898, the first practical submarine (actually the third one built) commissioned by the U.S. Navy; the USS Holland would complete its first trials on this day. In 1959, the U.S. Navy launched the USS Skate, the first of a new class of nuclear submarines that would be deployed during the Cold War. The Skate was the first to make the voyage across the Atlantic underwater and the first submarine to break through the polar ice cap at the North Pole. This submarine class was a major advance over the original Nautilus launched a few years before. It would be succeeded by the Polaris class of nuclear missile subs launched later.

USS_Skate_(SSN-578)_surfaced_in_Arctic_-_1959

NASA, in 1958, launches the Vanguard 1 solar-powered satellite, the third to be launched by the United States. This satellite is still in orbit, although no longer functional, having completed its mission years ago. It was designed to test a new launch vehicle and to test the environmental effects of space on an artificial satellite. We had moved from responding to the Soviet launch of Sputnik I in 1957 to a programmed of planned space exploration that would reach its pinnacle in the first walk on the moon during the Apollo 11 flight in 1969, just eleven years after the launch of Vanguard 1!

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1814 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Saint Patrick:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/s/saint_patrick.html ]

    

“Christ beside me, Christ before me, Christ behind me, Christ within me, Christ beneath me, Christ above me.”
— Saint Patrick

“I am Patrick, a sinner, most uncultivated and least of all the faithful and despised in the eyes of many.”
— Saint Patrick

“If I be worthy, I live for my God to teach the heathen, even though they may despise me.”
— Saint Patrick

“If I have any worth, it is to live my life for God so as to teach these peoples; even though some of them still look down on me.”
— Saint Patrick

“The Lord opened the understanding of my unbelieving heart, so that I should recall my sins.”
— Saint Patrick

“Before I was humiliated I was like a stone that lies in deep mud, and he who is mighty came and in his compassion raised me up and exalted me very high and placed me on the top of the wall.”
— Saint Patrick

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis was a good day for events. As we look back on the events falling on this day, we note two major international and three domestic events of consequence. On the international scene, this was the day in 1533 when King Henry VIII of England married his second wife, Anne Boleyn, who was already pregnant with their daughter who would become Queen Elizabeth I upon her father’s death. Three years later, Anne Boleyn would suffer the same fate of Henry’s first wife — she would lose her head in the Tower of England. Henry VIII was desperately seeking a male heir which none of his wives was able to provide him. Under Elizabeth I, England would become a world power. The Pax Britannica was just around the corner! 

Entebbe_Airport_DF-ST-99-05538

More recently, this day witnessed the ascension of General Idi Amin to power in Uganda after a military coup in 1971. Amin would become a harsh dictator and rule this central African country with an iron hand for the next eight years. During his tenure, he would support terrorism that would include the detention of the 248 passengers by Palestinian and German terrorist who where aboard a hijacked Air France flight at Entebbe Airport in 1975. These hostages were freed during a daring raid by Israeli Special Forces in 90 minutes. Ultimately, he was removed from his position by Ugandan rebels and Tanzanian troops in 1979 to end his oppressive reign.

The minor international event was the staging of a futuristic, science fiction play, “Rossum’s Universal Robots,” by Czech playwright Karel Capek in 1921. The primary significance of this play, beyond its dramatic value, was the foreshadowing the actual events 58 years later on an assembly line at the Ford Motor Company’s plant in Flat Rock, Michigan, when a worker was killed by an industrial robot.

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On the domestic front, this day witnessed the arrival in New Jersey of Ms. Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Jane Cochrane) after her circumnavigation of the world in 72 days in 1890. This trip was patterned after the voyage of Phileas Fogg in Jules Verne’s science fiction classic, Around the World in 80 Days that was published in 1873. While traversing the globe Ms. Bly, a journalist for the New York World newspaper whose publisher was the famed Joseph Pulitzer of the Journalism Prize fame, visited the famed Jules Verne in his home in Amiens, France. She wrote update reports for the paper. She gained her job by going undercover to expose the abuses of the mental hospitals of the day; she became a patient for one week before being rescued from the abusive environment. Through this story, she pioneered the field investigative reporting in a world dominated by male reporters. Her exposé led to the reform of the mental hospital system in New York City and eventually across the nation. She was a real hero!

A few years later, in 1915, Alexander Graham Bell initiated the first transcontinental telephone call to his assistant, Thomas Watson, in San Francisco. President Woodrow Wilson, in Washington, D.C., and AT&T President, Theodore Vail, in Atlanta also participated in this test of the system. The expansion of this system of communication would continue the process of shrinking the nation that was begun by the pony express, transcontinental telegraph, overland Butterfield Mail Stage, and the transcontinental railroad of the second half of the 19th century. It would remain to the decade of the 1960s for it to take the next step in the globalize this communication via satellite relays.

Another event that served to shrink the world was the establishment, in 1959, of the first transcontinental passenger airline jet service. American airlines put the Boeing 707 into transcontinental, nonstop service. Air travel now became the preferred mode of travel since it eliminated the multiple stops (for refueling) that made transcontinental travel by air a trying ordeal. The prop-driven Convair 990s and the Lockheed Electras were used to service regional routes. This was the prelude to the ending of passenger service by rail and transoceanic travel via steamships. The airplane would indeed shrink the world. We are now moving into the era of the super jumbo jets like the Airbus 380 and the Boeing 777 which will carry larger passenger loads over larger distances with less noise and more passenger comfort. It would seem that the future is now!

A380_Emirates_A6-EDC

The minor event of the day was the airing, in 1937, of the first broadcast episode of the soap opera, The Guiding Light. This program started out on the radio and transitioned to television in the early 1950s. It became the longest-running dramatic broadcast in history until its cancellation in 2009.

So, today was highlighted by the international tyranny of monarchs and dictators as well as the shrinking of the nation and world by communication and transportation technologies. We are indeed living in a world that is characterized by instant communication and facilitated travel. We are fast approaching of a true world community.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with this day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1527 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Nellie Bly:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/n/nellie_bly.html ]

    

“Could I pass a week in the insane ward at Blackwell’s Island? I said I could and I would. And I did.”
— Nellie Bly

“I always made a point of telling the doctors I was sane, and asking to be released, but the more I endeavored to assure them of my sanity, the more they doubted it.”
— Nellie Bly

“I had, toward the last, been shut off from all visitors, and so when the lawyer, Peter A. Hendricks, came and told me that friends of mine were willing to take charge of me if I would rather be with them than in the asylum, I was only too glad to give my consent.”
— Nellie Bly

“I always had a desire to know asylum life more thoroughly – a desire to be convinced that the most helpless of God’s creatures, the insane, were cared for kindly and properly.”
— Nellie Bly

“In our short walks we passed the kitchen where food was prepared for the nurses and doctors. There we got glimpses of melons and grapes and all kinds of fruits, beautiful white bread and nice meats, and the hungry feeling would be increased tenfold.”
— Nellie Bly

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbWhen the talk turns to journalism, there have been a number of names that come to one’s mind. Among those are William Randolph Hearst, Horace Greeley, and Joseph Pulitzer. These publishers were the heads of influential publishing empires during the early years of the 20th century. Who can forget Greeley’s call for young men to “go west, young man, go west”. And Hearst was the publishing villain who was pilloried by Orson Wells in his movie, “Citizen Kane”. (Those of us living in California also know him through his famous Hearst Castle along the Pacific Coast; this edifice is the epitome of self-indulgence!) And then there is Pulitzer, who will ever be remembered for the prize that bears his name — the Pulitzer Prize for Journalism.

Puck112188c

Pulitzer was born in Hungary to a poor, working class Jewish family. He emigrated to the United States when he was rejected by most military units of the late 19th century. He held menial jobs in New York and Boston, but eventually moved west to St. Louis, Missouri. There he started his career in journalism and eventually purchased a share of the St. Louis Post Dispatch. He turned that paper into one of the biggest in the lower mid-west.

Eventually, he acquired sufficient financial resources to purchase the New York World. He used this paper as a way to introduce a new type of journalism, Yellow Journalism, the the world. This was a way to introduce sensationalism into the newspaper and facilitate subscriptions. He also introduced advertising to the newspaper world.

But enough of this background. Let’s get on with our exploration of Joseph Pulitzer and his legacy… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3792 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Joseph Pulitzer:

    

“A cynical, mercenary, demagogic press will in time produce a people as base as itself.”
— Joseph Pulitzer

“Our Republic and its press will rise or fall together.”
— Joseph Pulitzer

“The power to mold the future of the Republic will be in the hands of the journalists of future generations.”
— Joseph Pulitzer

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoWe will examine another treaty today, The Treaty of Paris of 1898, that ended the Spanish-American War between the U.S. and Spain. It was fought over several of Spains last colonial holdings in the Caribbean and the Pacific Islands, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. In recent Days we dealt with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican-American War in 1848. Both of the treaties resulted in territorial gains for the U.S. As such, both wars were fought with the goal of furthering the territorial expansion (colonization) of our country.

What made the Spanish-American War different was the emergence of a new style of journalism, “yellow Journalism”. The goal of this type of reporting is to create the need of news coverage through the creation of or speculation about events. In this case the event was the sinking of the American man-of-war, the USS Maine, in Havana harbor. The reporting was highly speculative, blaming the event on Spanish terrorists using either a bomb or torpedo, all without hard evidence as to its real cause. This served to sell more newspapers by both Hearst and Pulitzer.

Wreck_uss_maine

We vcan see the roots of some our current foreign policy in this conflict. The battle over Cuba was supportive of rebel groups working to throw off the Spanish yoke. One we had a change in régimes, then we could negotiate for lands or other right. In Cuba, this resulted in the acquisition of Guantanamo Bay. In the Philippines, this would be the Subic Bay anchorage for our fleet, This is the same technique that we used to creat Panama when Columbia would not grant us the right of way to build a canal; the Panamanian government did grant us the rights!

But, now is time to jump into today’s exploration of the Spanish-American War…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4181 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to CUBA:

    

“Because he’ll take me to Cuba and I don’t want to go to Cuba.”
— Elian Gonzalez

“I am Fidel Castro and we have come to liberate Cuba.”
— Fidel Castro

“In Cuba we use our champions to promote the sport.”
— Alberto Juantorena

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