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Tag: League of Nations

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumb

Another day has dawned. On this day, we witnessed a couple events surrounding World War I. Before the entry of U.S. troops into that conflict, we witnessed development of two support units for General Pershing’s expeditionary force seeking the Mexican raiders led by Pancho Villa. Following World War I, this day, in the U.S. Senate, witnessed the second attempt to gain ratification of the Treaty of Versailles was defeated led by Republican forces under the leadership of Henry Cabot Lodge. This marked not only a defeat of the program of President Woodrow Wilson, but also a repudiation of the U.S. as a active participant in the international community of nations.

Bantam-jeep-1

This day also witness the manufacture of the one millionth Jeep, that ubiquitous army vehicle, to the U.S. Army. More recently, this day witnessed the start of Operation Iraqi Freedom in the second Persian Gulf War. On the lighter side, this was a day of two major firsts for television: the first Academy Awards Ceremony, hosted by Bob Hope, televised live and later this day would witness the first televising of the day-to-day business of our Congress on C-SPAN. That was this day in history, the 19th of March…

    
A More Detailed Look at Today’s Event History:

The major events of the day took place just before and just after World War I. Prior to that world conflict, taking place mainly in western Europe, we were, in 1916, embroiled in a conflict along the southern borders of the U.S. between Texas and Arizona. Pancho Villa, leading an army of Mexican peasants, would raid towns across the U.S.–Mexico border. One of the most famous of these raids was on the border town of Columbus, New Mexico; during this raid the town was burned to the ground. General John "Black Jack" Pershing and his expeditionary force received orders to pursue and capture and/or kill Pancho Villa. Two new military groups participated in this campaign of the Mexican American War. These two new support units were the motorized cavalry under Lt. George Patton and the founding of the first U.S. air combat force, the First Aero Squadron, based in Columbus, New Mexico; this town was the site of one of Pancho Villa’s more famous border raids. The Aero Squadron served primarily scouting duties during this campaign. They would serve well over France in the conflict taking Place over France.

1st_aero

Following the end of the First World War in 1919, the United States, England and France would draft the formal treaty that the Germans were forced to sign. This document, the Treaty of Versailles, called for the formation of a League of Nations after the model set forth by Woodrow Wilson in his 14 Points. This treaty was designed to protect and expand the colonial empires of England and France under the guise of create "Protectorates" overseen by each of these powers. The U.S. also received some protectorates, especially in the Pacific, but we were not at that time a colonial power.

The problem, however, was this treaty required ratification by the U.S. Senate, which was in control of anti-Wilson Republicans led by men like Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. The latter was especially active, in 1920, when this treaty came up for ratification a second time. This Senate action marked not only a defeat of the program of President Woodrow Wilson, but also a repudiation of the U.S. as a active participant in the international community of nations. We would never formally join the League of Nations and we would suffer, along with the democratic countries of Europe, the pains of war again when Adolf Hitler came into power as German Chancellor in 1933.

Two additional military events celebrated milestones on this day as well. In 1952, during the Korean War, the one millionth Jeep was manufactured. The jeep was introduced as an all-purpose, all-terrain vehicle to provide our troops with mobility during World War II and the Korean War. This milestone in the manufacturing of the functional, no-frills vehicle was a celebration of the success of a concept — mobility on the battlefield.

More recently, we witnessed on this day in 2003, the beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom by President George W. Bush. This operation was part of the second Persian Gulf War and part of the U.S. war on terrorism following the attacks of 9-11 in New York City, Pennsylvania, and the Pentagon in Virginia. Unlike the first Persian Gulf War, this military action was basically an U.S. action with a loose coalition of western European allies, especially the United Kingdom. Also, unlike the first Persian Gulf War, there was no coalition or support by our friends in the Arab world. While successful in removing Saddam Hussein from power, it has not bring real brought democracy or real freedom to that troubled country.

USMC_469

We also witnessed a couple of firsts in the television arena. In 1953, we witnessed the first live showing of the annual Academy Awards show. This 25th edition of the awards ceremony was hosted for the first time by Bob Hope and was the occasion of Cecil B. DeMilles winning the Best Picture award for "The Greatest Show on Earth." The ceremony was broadcast by NBC Television. Also on this day, in 1979, the country witnessed the first live broadcast of the day-to-day activities of the U.S. House of Representatives; these broadcasts were carried by C-SPAN.

And that was this day in history. It was filled with several significant events that have shaped and molded this great country of ours!

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1574 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Woodrow Wilson:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/w/woodrow_wilson.html ]

    

“A conservative is a man who just sits and thinks, mostly sits.”
— Woodrow Wilson

“A conservative is someone who makes no changes and consults his grandmother when in doubt.”
— Woodrow Wilson

“Absolute identity with one’s cause is the first and great condition of successful leadership.”
— Woodrow Wilson

“A little group of willful men, representing no opinion but their own, have rendered the great government of the United States helpless and contemptible.”
— Woodrow Wilson

“America lives in the heart of every man everywhere who wishes to find a region where he will be free to work out his destiny as he chooses.”
— Woodrow Wilson

“America was established not to create wealth but to realize a vision, to realize an ideal – to discover and maintain liberty among men.”
— Woodrow Wilson

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThe notable events on this day through history range from those that were informative, propaganda intended to change public opinion to those that highlight greed and avoid conflict leading to war. A couple of days ago, we dealt with the philanthropy of John D. Rockefeller; today we look at how he accumulated his billions of dollars through the monopoly of Standard Oil of Ohio. The 1870s was a time that saw the rich accumulate great sums of money and value through the control of access to this country’s natural resources, like oil, steel, or transportation. It took President Teddy Roosevelt to bust these trusts to restore the resources to the people.

Standard_Oil

On the other hand, we also look at the creation of the League of Nations in 1920 that brought the nations of the world together in a deliberation forum to talk out their differences without resorting to warfare. Good idea, but it didn’t necessary work. Woodrow Wilson, the architect of the Fourteen Points, suffered a stroke and was unable to campaign for the ratification in a Senate dominated by isolationist; the Treaty of Versailles, and therefore, the League of Nations, was not ratified and the United States did not participate. That, combined with the British and French quest for lands in the middle East. So much for a good idea!

Other good ideas did catch on. The Leonardo of America, Benjamin Franklin, start publishing Poor Richard’s Almanack on this day back in 1753. This publication would become the standard reference for farmers of the time, being helpful in knowing when to plant and harvest their crops. Likewise, Thomas Paine started serializing his famous tomb, Common Sense, on this date in 1776; this propaganda document served as a call to arms to the colonists in their battle with the British.

45 rpm record with large center

Finally, a technology innovation was released on this date in 1949 — the 45 rpm record. RCA provided this recording format to replace the 78 rpm record. The 45 allowed two high-quality recordings to be place on the two sides of this disk; it became the iconic mode of distributing songs during the Rock ‘n Roll era of the 1950s and early 1960s. Besides providing a better medium for selling records, it also created the opportunity for selling new record players due to its large central hole. It also made it easier to load more music in juke boxes in vogue during that period. Just like it replaced the 78 records, it was replaced by the 33 1/3 rpm album popular starting in the late 1950s. Ah, yes, those were the days.

So let’s get going on our overview of the significant events on January 10th… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1048 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Benjamin Franklin:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/b/benjamin_franklin.html ]

    

“A house is not a home unless it contains food and fire for the mind as well as the body.”
— Benjamin Franklin

“A life of leisure and a life of laziness are two things. There will be sleeping enough in the grave.”
— Benjamin Franklin

“A place for everything, everything in its place.”
— Benjamin Franklin

“All mankind is divided into three classes: those that are immovable, those that are movable, and those that move.”
— Benjamin Franklin

“All who think cannot but see there is a sanction like that of religion which binds us in partnership in the serious work of the world.”
— Benjamin Franklin

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoWe look today at a great experiment in international understanding that failed. It is not always the successes that are important; The League of Nations was proposed for the “right” reasons but was circumvented by the realities of weak human nature. Incorporated into The Treaty of Versailles, this international governmental organization failed on three fronts: social engineering of the map of Europe, the quest of both the British & French Empires or lands in the Middle East and Africa, and by the rapid retreat by the United States back into isolationism.

The League of Nations was the outgrowth of President Woodrow Wilson’s “Fourteen Point”. The French and the British, in their demand to place the entire blame for World War I on Germany, sought a way to acquire German and Ottoman territories for their own empires, they supported the League of Nations Mandates. Therefore, the two empires were able to use Wilson’s principles to “legally” accomplish their goals.

The_Gap_in_the_Bridge

But probably the most critical shortfall was the lack of American participation. The failure to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, of which the League of Nations was a part, left the keystone of leadership out of the organization. The Republican leaders in the Legislature sought to return to the isolated little enclave found here. The brief venture into Europe’s war and the treaty process was rejected and would be our approach to our response to the family of nations until the so-called “surprise” attack on Pearl Harbor.

But, enough of this background. Let’s get our exploration of the League of Nations started…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2010 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4228 Words ]

   

Quotations Related to LEAGUE OF NATIONS:

 

“The real history of the U.N. lies in the perceived failure of the League of Nations.”
— Joel Diemond

“There was a sense among Roosevelt’s generation the League of Nations had failed.”
— David Woolner

“Thus, there can be no real disarmament except on the basis of the collective peace system of the League of Nations.”
— Arthur Henderson

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary

We examine today the efforts of President Woodrow Wilson to institute a lasting peace after World War I. Wilson saw this as the “war to end all wars” and sought an honorable eace among the combatants through his FOURTEEN POINTS. This was a lofty idea.

However, France and Great Britain manipulated Wilson to effectively restore and extend their empire. Concurrently, these two powers wanted to saddle the Germn people and their leaders with the full blame and cost of the conflict. Wilson and the United States were considered a junior partner in the Allied cause. They seemingly accepted Wilson’s FOURTEEN POINTS and the founding of the League of Nations.

This situation was further complicated by the Republicans gaining a majority status in the U.S. Senate. This led to a failure to ratify the Versailles Treaty and the joining of the League of Nations. America was withdrawing back into its cocoon of isolationism that would last until the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.

NOTE: To cover this topic, my post today is a bit longer than normal. It was not possible to set forth this story in a shorter post

So, let’s start our exploration of Woodrow Wilson’s presidency and efforts to forge a fair and lasting peace…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2010 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4784 Words ]

   

Quotations Related to WOODROW WILSON

“A conservative is a man who just sits and thinks, mostly sits.”
— Woodrow Wilson

“A conservative is someone who makes no changes and consults his grandmother when in doubt.”
— Woodrow Wilson

“Absolute identity with one’s cause is the first and great condition of successful leadership.”
— Woodrow Wilson

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary

JerryPhotoAfter World War I, the victorious Allied Powers drew up the Treaty of Versailles. This treaty laid out the conditions for ending the hostilities, essentially placing all blame on the German’s. While President Woodrow Wilson set forth his Fourteen Points that could have led to an equitable and lasting peace, but England and France were more interested in preserving or expanding their empires.

Before entering the war in 1918, the United States had been strongly isolationist. After the war, the Republican majority in the Senate wanted a return to that policy. Consequently, when the Treaty of Versailles and the charter for the League of Nations came up for ratification, the Senate declined to do so. Thus we returned to isolationism.

Today we take a look at these two documents and what they were intended to accomplish. Join us…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2010 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3844 Words ]

   

Quotations Related to TREATY

“No treaty is ever an impediment to a cheat.”
— Sophocles

“What treaty that the whites have kept has the red man broken? Not one.”
— Sitting Bull

“What we need now is a Treaty of the World not a Treaty of Rome.”
— Bernie Ecclestone

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