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Prof. Boerner's Explorations

Thoughts and Essays that explore the world of Technology, Computers, Photography, History and Family.


Tag: Mexican-American War

Edited by Gerald Boerner



JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbWe might consider the Mexican-American War as the United States’ first war of imperialism. We used our fighting might against a much weaker Mexican force that lacked a strong government. It was a war of expansion. We had added a great deal of territory to the north of the Mexican territory through the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. Texas had won its independence from Mexico in 1836. This was sought to add Texas (via Annexation, not treaty) and Alta California (Most of the territory south of the Louisiana Purchase and California) to the United States.

To our credit, we did not try to annex the whole of Mexico to our growing country. Our armed forces basically occupied most of the territory from Vera Cruz north. This conflict was ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed in 1848.

US troops march on monterrey

The acquisition of this territory added a couple of jewels to our growing country. These were the Republic of Texas and the California territory. We completed this acquisition just a year before gold was discovered in northern California. Can you imagine the struggle that might have erupted if California was not part of the United States!

But, let’s proceed with our exploration of this war of expansion. The Mexican-American War was much more complicated than it appears on the surface… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3298 Words ]


Quotations Related to Veterans Day:


“I am heartily rejoiced that my term is so near its close. I will soon cease to be a servant and will become a sovereign.”
— James Polk

“Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil.”
— James Polk

“In the murder of Mexicans upon their own soil, or in robbing them of their country, I can take no part either now or here-after. The guilt of these crimes must rest on others. I will not participate in them.”
— Joshua Giddings, Dissenter

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Edited by Gerald Boerner



JerryPhotoTexas had fought a bloody, unbalanced fight again Santa Anna and the Mexican government to earn their independence in 1836. This battle started at the Alamo in San Antonio and ended at the Battle of San Jacinto where Sam Houston lead the Texians to victory over Mexico. Thus, the Republic of Texas was born.

The Treaties of Velasco between the newly created Texas Republic and Mexico included not only the current territory of Texas, but also included parts of the current states of New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming. When mated with the territorial gains of the Florida territories as a result of the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain, in 1819, this provided an attractive target for annexation to the United States. Given the earlier acquisition of the northern territory of the Louisiana Purchase. The Manifest Destiny quest for territory in the west.


The territory of Alta California became the next target. This included the present-day states of California, Arizona, Utah and Nevada. But how to get it without being the outright aggressor. So, we used the squabble between the Republic of Texas and Mexico about the river that defined the boundary between the two countries. Tyler’s Annexation of Texas in 1845 made the battle between Mexico and the United States. The Mexican Cessation of New Mexico and Alta California for 18 million dollars ended this conflict in 1848. The United States now extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans across the southern borders.

What are we supposed to learn from this? I think that what we see is the progress of U.S. imperialism under the cover of “Manifest Destiny”. We like to think of our country as being the friend of the world. And, by and large, we are most of the time. But we have had our less glorious moments, such as the Mexican-American and Spanish-American Wars as well as the various Indian Wars. When not being an aggressor, we often retreated into isolationism such as we saw befoe both world wars of the 20th century. Hopefully, we will do better than that during the 21st century.

But, et us get on with tday’s exploration of the Annexation of Texas in 1845…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3000 Words ]


Quotations Related to TEXAS:


“Calling a taxi in Texas is like calling a rabbi in Iraq.”
— Fran Lebowitz

“But I’m a citizen of Texas and try to spend most of my time there.”
— Thomas Haden Church

“I got beat up up in Texas because my bootlaces were the wrong color.”
— Fairuza Balk

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Edited by Gerald Boerner



JerryPhotoWith the Mexican American population of California approaching majority status, it is good for us to look back at the way the former Mexican territory acquired as part of the Mexican American War during the mid-1800s. This conflict was fought during the years 1846-1848. It provided many of the Generals who would lead the Union troops during the Civil War, including Grant and McClelland. It was fought for the goals of acquiring the Republic of Texas and Alta California for the United States.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was negotiated by Nicholas Trist with the remnants of the Mexican government who had withdrawn from Mexico City, which was occupied ny General Winfield Scott’s troops. The met in the city of Guadalupe Hidalgo and arrived at a treaty that was basically dictated by the U.S.. negotiator. This provided for the realization of the U.S. land acquisition goals while giving the Mexicans very little.

In fact, the two main articles in the treaty favorable to the Mexicans were deleted or highly modified during Senate ratification. This included the retraction of the promise to allow current land grant holders to maintain the ownership of that property. The other retraction related to the promise that anyone who remained in the territory for two years would be granted U.S. citizenship; this was nullified.


I can’t help but think of the parallels between this situation with that of the Palestinians. With the Mexican American population growing and the increase in concerns over illegal immigration and cross border violence becomes more worrisome. What do you think?

But we need to get started with oue exploration of today’s topic…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4160 Words ]


Quotations Related to TREATY:


“No treaty is ever an impediment to a cheat.”
— Sophocles

“The secret of politics? Make a good treaty with Russia.”
— Otto von Bismarck

“What we need now is a Treaty of the World not a Treaty of Rome.”
— Bernie Ecclestone

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Edited by Gerald Boerner



Due to injury, this commentary will be added later. Please check back. Thank you.  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2010 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3054 Words ]


Quotations Related to VETERANS

“We often take for granted the very things that most deserve our gratitude.”
— Cynthia Ozick

“It is easy to take liberty for granted, when you have never had it taken from you.”
— Dick Cheney

“This nation will remain the land of the free only so long as it is the home of the brave.”
— Elmer Davis

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