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Tag: Pancho Villa

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumb

Another day has dawned. On this day, we witnessed a couple events surrounding World War I. Before the entry of U.S. troops into that conflict, we witnessed development of two support units for General Pershing’s expeditionary force seeking the Mexican raiders led by Pancho Villa. Following World War I, this day, in the U.S. Senate, witnessed the second attempt to gain ratification of the Treaty of Versailles was defeated led by Republican forces under the leadership of Henry Cabot Lodge. This marked not only a defeat of the program of President Woodrow Wilson, but also a repudiation of the U.S. as a active participant in the international community of nations.

Bantam-jeep-1

This day also witness the manufacture of the one millionth Jeep, that ubiquitous army vehicle, to the U.S. Army. More recently, this day witnessed the start of Operation Iraqi Freedom in the second Persian Gulf War. On the lighter side, this was a day of two major firsts for television: the first Academy Awards Ceremony, hosted by Bob Hope, televised live and later this day would witness the first televising of the day-to-day business of our Congress on C-SPAN. That was this day in history, the 19th of March…

    
A More Detailed Look at Today’s Event History:

The major events of the day took place just before and just after World War I. Prior to that world conflict, taking place mainly in western Europe, we were, in 1916, embroiled in a conflict along the southern borders of the U.S. between Texas and Arizona. Pancho Villa, leading an army of Mexican peasants, would raid towns across the U.S.–Mexico border. One of the most famous of these raids was on the border town of Columbus, New Mexico; during this raid the town was burned to the ground. General John "Black Jack" Pershing and his expeditionary force received orders to pursue and capture and/or kill Pancho Villa. Two new military groups participated in this campaign of the Mexican American War. These two new support units were the motorized cavalry under Lt. George Patton and the founding of the first U.S. air combat force, the First Aero Squadron, based in Columbus, New Mexico; this town was the site of one of Pancho Villa’s more famous border raids. The Aero Squadron served primarily scouting duties during this campaign. They would serve well over France in the conflict taking Place over France.

1st_aero

Following the end of the First World War in 1919, the United States, England and France would draft the formal treaty that the Germans were forced to sign. This document, the Treaty of Versailles, called for the formation of a League of Nations after the model set forth by Woodrow Wilson in his 14 Points. This treaty was designed to protect and expand the colonial empires of England and France under the guise of create "Protectorates" overseen by each of these powers. The U.S. also received some protectorates, especially in the Pacific, but we were not at that time a colonial power.

The problem, however, was this treaty required ratification by the U.S. Senate, which was in control of anti-Wilson Republicans led by men like Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. The latter was especially active, in 1920, when this treaty came up for ratification a second time. This Senate action marked not only a defeat of the program of President Woodrow Wilson, but also a repudiation of the U.S. as a active participant in the international community of nations. We would never formally join the League of Nations and we would suffer, along with the democratic countries of Europe, the pains of war again when Adolf Hitler came into power as German Chancellor in 1933.

Two additional military events celebrated milestones on this day as well. In 1952, during the Korean War, the one millionth Jeep was manufactured. The jeep was introduced as an all-purpose, all-terrain vehicle to provide our troops with mobility during World War II and the Korean War. This milestone in the manufacturing of the functional, no-frills vehicle was a celebration of the success of a concept — mobility on the battlefield.

More recently, we witnessed on this day in 2003, the beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom by President George W. Bush. This operation was part of the second Persian Gulf War and part of the U.S. war on terrorism following the attacks of 9-11 in New York City, Pennsylvania, and the Pentagon in Virginia. Unlike the first Persian Gulf War, this military action was basically an U.S. action with a loose coalition of western European allies, especially the United Kingdom. Also, unlike the first Persian Gulf War, there was no coalition or support by our friends in the Arab world. While successful in removing Saddam Hussein from power, it has not bring real brought democracy or real freedom to that troubled country.

USMC_469

We also witnessed a couple of firsts in the television arena. In 1953, we witnessed the first live showing of the annual Academy Awards show. This 25th edition of the awards ceremony was hosted for the first time by Bob Hope and was the occasion of Cecil B. DeMilles winning the Best Picture award for "The Greatest Show on Earth." The ceremony was broadcast by NBC Television. Also on this day, in 1979, the country witnessed the first live broadcast of the day-to-day activities of the U.S. House of Representatives; these broadcasts were carried by C-SPAN.

And that was this day in history. It was filled with several significant events that have shaped and molded this great country of ours!

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1574 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Woodrow Wilson:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/w/woodrow_wilson.html ]

    

“A conservative is a man who just sits and thinks, mostly sits.”
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“A conservative is someone who makes no changes and consults his grandmother when in doubt.”
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“Absolute identity with one’s cause is the first and great condition of successful leadership.”
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“A little group of willful men, representing no opinion but their own, have rendered the great government of the United States helpless and contemptible.”
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“America lives in the heart of every man everywhere who wishes to find a region where he will be free to work out his destiny as he chooses.”
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“America was established not to create wealth but to realize a vision, to realize an ideal – to discover and maintain liberty among men.”
— Woodrow Wilson

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumb

Again, this day was filled with some pretty important, or at least interesting, historical event in history. One, the assassination of Julius Caesar on the steps of the theatre in Pompeii gave us the famous phrase, "Beware the Ides of March." In the past century, the 20th century, witnessed some important international activities. These included the pursuit of the Mexican leader, Pancho Villa, by General John J. Pershing just before our involvement in World War I, the abdication of Czar Nicolas II (the last Russian Emperor) under the pressures of striking workers and military troops, and the chartering of the American Legion by Congressional action to honor World War I veterans.

Columbus NM

Several events in the entertainment industry also occurred on this day. Julie Andrews and Rex Harrison opened the Broadway version of the Lerner-Lowe musical, "My Fair Lady." Actress Elizabeth Taylor married actor Richard Burton after their steamy affair on the set of "Night of the Iguana" filmed in Mexico; this would be their first marriage to each other. And who can forget that haunting movie, "The Godfather," directed by Francis Ford Coppola? This latter movie won the Academy Award. So, let’s get on with a little closer look at some of these events.

Again, this day was filled with some pretty important, or at least interesting, historical event in history. One, the assassination of Julius Caesar on the steps of the theatre in Pompeii gave us the famous phrase, "Beware the Ides of March." In the past century, the 20th century, witnessed some important international activities. These included the pursuit of the Mexican leader, Pancho Villa, by General John J. Pershing just before our involvement in World War I, the abdication of Czar Nicolas II (the last Russian Emperor) under the pressures of striking workers and military troops, and the chartering of the American Legion by Congressional action to honor World War I veterans.

Soldiers Outside Winter PalaceSeveral events in the entertainment industry also occurred on this day. Julie Andrews and Rex Harrison opened the Broadway version of the Lerner-Lowe musical, "My Fair Lady." Actress Elizabeth Taylor married actor Richard Burton after their steamy affair on the set of "Night of the Iguana" filmed in Mexico; this would be their first marriage to each other. And who can forget that haunting movie, "The Godfather," directed by Francis Ford Coppola? This latter movie won the Academy Award. So, let’s get on with a little closer look at some of these events…

On this day, in 44 B.C., the Roman Emperor for Life, Julius Caesar, was accosted by 60 Senators on the steps of the Pompeii theatre. These Senators were upset at the Imperial ambitions of Julius Caesar that the Senators feared would result in the abandonment of the Roman Republic and the Roman Senate. The Senators, led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus, would take turns stabbing Caesar. This event was foretold by a seer when he told Julius Caesar to "beware the Ides of March." The Ides of March referred to the 15th day of March, May, July, and October; it referred to the 13th day of the other months on the Roman calendar. So the "Ides of March" has become an ominous day for all of us!

Three important international events happened on this day during the 20th century. In 1916, before the U.S. entered the fighting in Europe during World War I, General John J. Pershing lead an army expeditionary force chased Pancho Villa and his Mexican band into Mexico. Among his troops were George Patton, a lieutenant, who would become one of the great Generals of World War II, lead a group of Dodge autos, one of the first armored groups to fight. What triggered this "Border War?" The paramilitary forces of Pancho Villa had attacked the border town of Columbus, New Mexico. Pershing’s Expedition was tasked with pursuing Villa into Mexico to eliminate him, with prejudice, and stop his raiding. It was a fight that prepared the U.S. Army for its activation and deployment to Europe in 1917 to fight in World War I.

Another international event was the end of the czar’s reign over the Russian Empire in 1917. Czar Nicholas II would abdicate and he and his family would be placed in custody by the revolutionaries. The last of the Romanov dynasty would end up executed as the Bolsheviks under the leadership of Lenin took control the country and established the first communist state. What triggered this discontent? Russia’s participation in World War I against the Germans. The Russian people, basically little more than slaves, were inducted into the army and forced to fight in the cold of the Russian winter. The Bolsheviks offered these soldiers an alternative that appealed to this underclass.

My_fair_lady_posterThe third international event took place in 1919. The Congress chartered a new veterans organization, the American Legion, at the bequest of veterans returning from World War I in Europe. Among this group of veterans was the hero of the "Fighting 69th" battle in France and future head of the Office of Strategic Services (the predecessor of the CIA), "Wild Bill" Donovan, the "Father of American Intelligence." He was also a recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor. The American Legion would serve the needs of the fighting men returning to civilian life after being exposed to the expanded experience of France and the horrors of war.

There were a trio of entertainment events also occurred on this day. In 1956, we witnessed the opening of the Lerner & Lowe musical, "My Fair Lady," starring Julie Andrews and Rex Harrison; these roles were played by Audrey Hepburn and Rex Harrison in the movie version years later. In 1964, we witnessed actress Elizabeth Taylor marry actor Richard Burton for the first of their marriages to each other; this marriage followed their steamy romance while on the set of "Night of the Iguana" in Mexico. And, in 1972, we saw the Academy Award-winning movie of the Corleone family in "The Godfather," adapted from the book by Mario Puzo released in the theaters across the country; the movie was directed by Francis Ford Coppola.

The events of the day entertained us, warned us, and made us sad. We live in a complex world that could well heed that warning of the seer so many years ago: "Beware the Ides of March!" Let us heed that warning…

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1634 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Revolution:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/revolution.html ]

    

“Whoever finishes a revolution only halfway, digs his own grave.”
— Georg Buchner

“Revolution begins with the self, in the self.”
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“We’re still in the first minutes of the first day of the Internet revolution.”
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“And you cannot have a socialist revolution commandeered from the top, ordered around by some omniscient leader or group of leaders.”
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“The Framers of the Constitution knew that free speech is the friend of change and revolution. But they also knew that it is always the deadliest enemy of tyranny.”
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“We have confirmed something we only knew in theory, namely that revolution, in which uncontrolled and uncontrollable forces operate imperiously, is blind and destructive, grandiose and cruel.”
— Frederica Montseny

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoThe Mexican Revolution of 1910 was not a battle against foreign rule, but was an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. Diaz had become a dictator and the people wanted change. Without the ballot box as an option for change, the opponents of Diaz took up arms. Madero represented a more democratic option to the country. A Constitution was written to establish a representative democracy.

But, as so frequently happens during armed insurrections, some of those taking up arms decided to set up small kingdoms of their own. This was especially true in Mexico at the time since the power was centralized in Mexico City an was less apparent in those somewhat distant from the capitol. This scenario played itself out in northern Mexico in the stat of Chihuahua where Pancho Villa was appointed governor. Villa maintained a militia and frequently raided American settlements in New Mexico, land previously “sold” to the U.S.

La_Constitucion_ha_muerto_1903

These raiding forays across the U.S. border forced President Wilson to send Gen. John J. Pershing across the border to seek and destroy Villa’s army. It provided a training ground to train National Guard troops in a live battlefield. Likewise, it was a training ground for future general like George Patton. This special group under Pershing was retasked when the U.S. entered World Was I in 1917.

So, let’s jump into our exploration of the border confrontation between Pershing and Pancho Villa…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4073 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to REVOLUTION:

    

“Whoever finishes a revolution only halfway, digs his own grave.”
— Georg Buchner

“Revolution begins with the self, in the self.”
— Toni Cade Bambara

“We’re still in the first minutes of the first day of the Internet revolution.”
— Scott Cook

continue reading…