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Tag: Slavery

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis day, March 14th, has seen some important events in the history of our country. During this primary season of the Presidential Election campaign, we hear a lot about Town Hall Meetings and Caucuses; it was on this day that the first town hall meeting was held in Boston. This day witnessed George Washington side-tracking a potential officer coup d’étate by Continental Army officers with his "Newburgh Address." It was also the day that witnessed UN forces retake Seoul during the Korean War. Eli Whitney was granted a patent for his "Cotton Engine" that made the growing of cotton profitable and ultimately triggered the Civil War to maintain access to slave labor. The FBI issued its first "10 Most Wanted" list on this day and Jack Ruby was sentenced to death for the shooting of Lee Harvey Oswald. So, let’s take a closer look at some of these events…

faneuil_hall

This day witnessed several major milestones in the history of our American democracy. In 1743, the first recorded town meeting occurred at Faneuil Hall in Boston. Interestingly, this original meeting became the opportunity for the community to become informed about issues rather than to allow the people to vote on issues of current importance as is done with the caucuses being held during this election season, especially in the Republican Party’s primary landscape. On this day, in 1783, just after the signing of the Treaty of Paris, officers of the Continental Army were ready to rebel and take over the fledgling American government over a pension dispute. As they met in Newburgh, they were ready to march on the Congress when George Washington delivered an unscheduled speech that became known as the "Newburgh Declaration." Both of these events would allow our experiment in representative government, unique in the world at that time, that would culminate in the ratification of the strong United States Constitution in 1789. There, again, Washington arose over the populace zeitgeist to insist on a democratic presidency rather than the monarchy that the colonists were used to from their European heritage.

BE030041 (RM) TMH 03/14/2011At the time that the patent for the "Cotton Engine" (Cotton Gin) was issued to Eli Whitney in 1794, the slave-based economy of the southern states was not well understood. Processing cotton, once grown and harvested, was an intensive, difficult job because of all the seeds in the cotton bolls. This was hard, handwork; not the type of work that non-slaves would do! The cotton gin enabled large amounts of cotton to be process, the seeds removed (and themselves processed into oil) and the cotton ready to spin. This made the planting of large fields of cotton economically attractive, but required slave labor to tend, given all the weeding and harvesting required. This made a slave-based economic system emerge as the key factor in the southern states. As the abolition movement in the north gained momentum, the southern states feared the spread of this non-slave economy into the south, destroying their agrarian way of life. The roots of the civil war might actually be traced back to this invention!

In 1951, the Korean War was the major event on most people’s minds. This was the first "hot" conflict in the Cold War between the democratic Western Powers and the communistic Soviet Union. Each of these major powers had their proxy states: the UN and the United States defended South Korea while the communist People’s Republic of China (PRC) supported North Korea; Korea had been partitioned at the 38th parallel after World War II. This conflict seemed to carry on interminably. On this day, the US Forces, under the UN umbrella, launched Operation  Ripper in 1951. This operation would recapture the South Korean capital of Seoul for the second time. The Korean War would continue until 1953 when two major events occurred: Joseph Stalin, the hard-core dictator of the Soviet Union and developer of the communist expansion scheme, died. The second event that brought this war to a armistice was the election, in 1952, of General Dwight D. Eisenhower, leader of the Allies in Europe during World War II, was elected President. The Korean peninsula remains a hotspot in today’s world.

fbi-most-wanted-fbi_gov_1

Two major law enforcement events also occurred on this day. In 1950, J. Edgar Hoover issued the FBI’s first "10 Most Wanted" list. This list identified those fugitives from justice that were considered the greatest threat to society at any moment. It would help promote capture of the FBI’s "toughest guys" by eliciting info from the American people. The second legal event on this day occurred in 1964 when Jack Ruby was sentenced to death for the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald, the suspected assassin of President John F. Kennedy. A Texas Court of Appeal would overturn the verdict and ordered a new trial. Ruby would die of lung cancer in 1967 while awaiting his new trial.

And now a piece of trivia for the day. Who was the first president to file an income tax return? The answer is Warren G. Harding, president from 1921 to 1923. He was associated with cronies from Ohio who were corrupt; they were convicted and sent to prison! The "Teapot Dome" scandal occurred during his administration and he was known to have at least four affairs during his time in office; Clinton’s indiscretions may not be all that bad! Overall, Harding is considered to be one of the worse presidents that we have had in this country.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1745 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Jack Ruby:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/jack_ruby.html ]

    

“Maybe something can be saved, something can be done.”
— Jack Ruby

“Someone had to do it. That son of a bitch killed my President.”
— Jack Ruby

“I am as innocent regarding any conspiracy as any of you gentlemen in the room.”
— Jack Ruby

“It may not be too late, whatever happens, if our President, Lyndon Johnson, knew the truth from me. But if I am eliminated, there won’t be any way of knowing.”
— Jack Ruby

“Jackie Kennedy was magnificent in the days and weeks immediately following her husband’s assassination. She was especially wonderful to me.”
— Pierre Salinger

“I have been used for a purpose, and there will be a certain tragic occurrence happening if you don’t take my testimony and somehow vindicate me so my people don’t suffer because of what I have done.”
— Jack Ruby

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbWe have seen some major events on March 6th over the past two hundred years. In 1836, this day witnessed the storming of the Alamo by Santa Ana’s forces; the 163 Texian defenders were overwhelmed by the Mexican army and most defenders lost their lives. But the Battle of san Jacinto a short time later would see the Texians win their independence and establish the Republic of Texas. The rallying cry for that latter battle was “Remember the Alamo!” The state of Texas would later make the Spanish Mission in San Antonio a historic site.

Fall-of-the-alamo-gentilz_1844

Also on this day we received two life and death decisions from our court system. The first, in 1857, the U.S. Supreme Court found that the slave, Dred Scott, did not have grounds to gain freedom for himself or his family. This led to his continued enslavement and fed the fires of the abolitionists. More recently, in 1951, Ethel and Julius Rosenberg would face the court in their trial as spies for the Soviet Union. They were accused of passing nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union during World War II. They would be convicted and executed in 1953.

A milestone in broadcasting was passed in 1981 when Walter Cronkite, the dean of evening news anchors. On this night, Cronkite who had been the anchor of The CBS Evening News for nineteen years would retire his anchor spot. Dan Rather would take over the evening anchor desk. Cronkite was remembered for his ending of each broadcast with the iconic words, “And that’s the way it is: Friday, March 6, 1981.”

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 906 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Slavery:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/slavery.html ]

    

“Slavery exists. It is black in the South, and white in the North.”
— Andrew Johnson

“Since the days of slavery, if you were a good singer or dancer, it was your job to perform for the master after dinner.”
— Spike Lee

“Slavery can only be abolished by raising the character of the people who compose the nation; and that can be done only by showing them a higher one.”
— Maria W. Chapman

“Should slavery be abolished there, (and it is an event, which, from these circumstances, we may reasonably expect to be produced in time) let it be remembered, that the Quakers will have had the merit of its abolition.”
— Thomas Clarkson

“Pervading nationalism imposes its dominion on man today in many different forms and with an aggressiveness that spares no one. The challenge that is already with us is the temptation to accept as true freedom what in reality is only a new form of slavery.”
— Pope John Paul II

“The North understand it better – they have told us for twenty years that their object was to pen up slavery within its present limits – surround it with a border of free States, and like the scorpion surrounded with fire, they will make it sting itself to death.”
— Robert Toombs

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbOn this day we have seen some major events that have affected the history not only of our own country, but of the family of nations as well. Some of these events were happy ones, like the first Mardi Gras celebrated in New Orleans in 1827. Others dealt with war and preparations for war. Domestically, in 1776 the Continental Congress established the Continental Navy which has grown into the most powerful on earth. On this day in 1991, President George H.W. Bush announced the end of hostilities during the First Gulf War and Operation Desert Storm. But in Germany, in 1933, we witnessed the burning of the seat of the German Parliament, the Reichstag, in Berlin; Chancellor Adolf Hitler blamed it on communists and took the opportunity to declare marshal law. World War II was the consequence of the Nazi leadership’s power grab.

Reichstag Fire

We have seen some important civil rights events occur as well. In 1860, in New York City, Abraham Lincoln delivered his Cooper union speech condemning slavery. This speech brought him to national prominence and led to his election as President of the United States later that year. Also on this day, in 1872, a young African American woman, Charlotte E. Ray, graduated from Howard University and becoming the first African American woman to become a lawyer in this country. She would later  become the first woman admitted to practice law in Washington.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 860 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Reichstag:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/reichstag.html ]

    

“In 1930 I became a member of the Reichstag.”
— Hans Frank

“I was lucky because on the morning after the burning of the Reichstag I left my home very early to catch a train to Berlin for the conference of our student organization and that is the only reason why I escaped arrest.”
— Klaus Fuchs

“If there’s another 9/11 or a major war in the Middle-East involving a U.S. attack on Iran, I have no doubt that there will be, the day after or within days an equivalent of a Reichstag fire decree that will involve massive detentions in this country.”
— Daniel Ellsberg

“It was also my idea that the advisory committees of the Academy should replace the legal committees of the German Reichstag, which was gradually fading into the background in the Reich.”
— Hans Frank

“Now, to describe the process of the Wrapped Reichstag, which went from 1971 to ’95, there is an entire book about that, because each one of our projects has its own book. The book is not an art book, meaning it’s not written by an art historian.”
— Christo

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis day was distinguished by a three major events in legal history. In 1803, the United States Supreme Court, under the leadership of Chief Justice John Marshall (one of the Founding Fathers), passed down a series of decisions that helped define the boundaries between federal rights and states rights under our Constitution. Among these decisions, the case of Marbury v. Madison defined the dominance of federal rights over the states in several major areas. This day in 1841 also saw former President John Quincy Adams, the son of our second President, John Adams, defend the rebellious slaves who were being transported aboard the La Amistad before the U.S. Supreme Court. And, finally, this day in 1868 witnessed the Impeachment Trial of President Andrew Johnson before the U.S. House of Representatives for firing his Secretary of War; he would be acquitted by the U.S. Senate later.

Fall of the Alamo

This day also witnessed a couple of significant battles during our country’s history. In 1836, General Santa Anna lead the Mexican forces against the Texan’s using the Alamo as their fortification in San Antonio. These brave Americans were fighting to create an independent Republic in Texas. Santa Anna’s forces stormed the Alamo on March 6th, Killing most of the Alamo’s defenders, including General Travis. Also on this day in 1991, the coalition forces, under a United Nations mandate, began their ground campaign against the forces of Saddam Hussein and his Iraqi troops; the coalition forces were fighting to restore Kuwait’s independence. The well-coordinated forces of the coalition successfully routed the Iraqi troops.

Voice_of_America_Bethany_Relay_Station

On a different note, this day in 1942 found a new shortwave radio broadcast, the Voice of America, beamed into the countries of occupied Europe with news from America. These broadcasts spread the news of what was actually happening in World War II, whether good news for the Allies or bad. This service was later expanded to include the Mediterranean and North Africa theaters as well as the Pacific theater of war. These broadcasts continued during the Cold War and into the present. Broadcasts were in the language of the various cultural and national groups around the world.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1036 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Sam Houston:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/s/sam_houston.html ]

    

“Texas has yet to learn submission to any oppression, come from what source it may.”
— Sam Houston

“Whether his policy was right or wrong, he built up the glory of the nation.”
— Sam Houston

“A leader is someone who helps improve the lives of other people or improve the system they live under.”
— Sam Houston

“I am aware that in presenting myself as the advocate of the Indians and their rights, I shall stand very much alone.”
— Sam Houston

“I would give no thought of what the world might say of me, if I could only transmit to posterity the reputation of an honest man.”
— Sam Houston

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis was a day on which a number of significant events are noteworthy, especially on the international scene. On this day in 1968, the USS Pueblo and her crew were captured by the North Koreans when the ship navigated out of international  waters. The crew would be held captive for eleven months before being released. Why was this such an important event? The USS Pueblo was an intelligence ship and carried sophisticated surveillance equipment that would be useful to our possible future enemies.

USS_Pueblo_(AGER-2)

But the more important international event on this day in 1973 was the announcement by President Richard Nixon of the peace accord negotiated by our National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger and North Vietnamese negotiator Le Doc Tho. The Paris Peace Accords set the conditions for a cease fire between the two countries, the withdrawal of American troops, and the release of the American POWs. These accords were formally signed on January 27th. The Vietnam War had generated a deal of dissent among the draft-aged college population.

JrobinsonOn the home front, this day was marked by some relatively minor events and a couple of blockbuster events. The first of the blockbusters was the induction of that great African American, multi-sport star, Jackie Robinson, into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962 (Cooperstown, Ohio). Robinson was a multisport athlete at UCLA and then played in the Negro Leagues down South; the major leagues were still segregated. But in 1947, Branch Rickey, the president of the Brooklyn Dodgers, signed Robinson to a contract to play for the Major League team — he broke the “color” barrier. During his early years on the team, he was showered by jeers, racial slurs, and discriminatory treatment, but he “turned the other cheek” and let his play speak for him. And what a speech that was! He was outstanding and opened the way for other Blacks, Hispanics, and other minority players to enter the major leagues. His induction into the Hall of Fame was another barrier that he broke; all previous “negroes” were in a separate Hall of Fame for the Negro Leagues. Robinson was inducted on the first try by a unanimous vote in 1962, the first year that he was eligible. He was a real “man’s man”!

Roots_25th_Anniversary_EditionThe other blockbuster event that occurred on this day was a miniseries that aired on ABC-TV for eight days starting this day in 1977. What miniseries was this? ROOTS, the story of an African who was captured by a slaving tribe in his native West African homeland, sold to white slavers, surviving the ocean voyage to the American South where he would be sold into the degradation of slavery on a southern plantation. The story was based on the book, Roots, by Alex Haley and purportedly represents his family’s experience in America through a slave, Kunta Kinte, played by the unknown Black actor, LeVar Burton (who would later star in Star Trek, The Next Generation.) The nation would be captivated for the next week and would come face-to-face with the horrors of slavery. This was a breakthrough a major cultural barrier and a basis for cultural understanding. Who can forget the baby held by his father and lifted up to the sky in dedication (baptism, if you will). This miniseries, I believe, brought a whole new sense of pride and hope for a past as well as a future to new generations of Blacks.

A critical event occurred during the legislative flurry of LBJ’s Great Society was the passage of Twenty-Fourth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution in 1964. This amendment barred the imposition of poll taxes and other barriers used to keep African Americans from voting in Federal Elections. The major impact of this amendment was upon southern states where it was used to prevent the poor and African American populations from voting and thus upsetting the status quo.

And the final major event of this day was Elizabeth Blackwell becoming the first female in the United States to receive a medical doctorate in 1849. After being rejected by the major medical schools, she was admitted to Geneva Medical College in Geneva, New York; she would provide medical services to the troops during the Civil War and opened the way for the women of later years to become physicians, not just nurses or midwives.

Of much less consequence were several other event that are associated with this day. The first permanent bridge spanning the Mississippi River in Minnesota was opened in 1855. The Wham-O Toy Company produced and sold a new concept in toys, the “Pluto Platter,” or Frisbie, patterned after the pie tins used by the Frisbie Pie Company; the game based on this toy was a rage amongst university students. 

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1361 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Jackie Robinson:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/jackie_robinson.html ]

    

“Above anything else, I hate to lose.”
— Jackie Robinson

“A life is not important except in the impact it has on other lives.”
— Jackie Robinson

“There’s not an American in this country free until every one of us is free.”
— Jackie Robinson

“Life is not a spectator sport. If you’re going to spend your whole life in the grandstand just watching what goes on, in my opinion you’re wasting your life.”
— Jackie Robinson

“I’m not concerned with your liking or disliking me… All I ask is that you respect me as a human being.”
— Jackie Robinson

“The way I figured it, I was even with baseball and baseball with me. The game had done much for me, and I had done much for it.”
— Jackie Robinson

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoAndrew Jackson was an interesting man. He was the first President who was not among the Founding Fathers. He was the first President born west of the Appalachian Mountains in a log cabin. And he was a populist elected by the new Democratic Party. In a word, he “revolutionized” the Presidency!

While in office, Jackson supported several populist policies. These included awarding jobs through the spoils system, eliminating the Electoral College to elect the President via the popular vote, and eliminate the National Bank. His most controversial policies were his defense of Slavery and the Indian Removal (Genocide) programs. While in office, he was powerful enough to carry these out, but they would be attacked by later administrations.

JacksonAssassinationAttempt

But, let’s jump into our exploration now…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3813 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to ANDREW JACKSON:

    

“One man with courage makes a majority.”
— Andrew Jackson

“There are no necessary evils in government. Its evils exist only in its abuses.”
— Andrew Jackson

“In a free government the demand for moral qualities should be made superior to that of talents.”
— Andrew Jackson

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary:

JerryPhotoAs we remember the elements of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, Slavery was prohibited in the western territories north of the parallel 36°30′ north. Slavery had previously been prohibited in the Northwest territories. So, when Dred Scott’s owner was assigned to posts in Illinois and Wisconsin, Dred Scott believed that he should be declared a free man. When his owner returned to Missouri, a Slave state, Scott filed a lawsuit for his freedom.

In 1837 Jackson was President and Taney was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Both Men were pro-slavery. In this context the court considered Dred Scott’s case. Through a series of suits, the high court did not hand down its decisions until this day in 1857. The net outcome was that Dred Scott did not have legal standing as a citizen, was not permitted to sue in the courts, and that parts of the Missouri Compromise were unconstitutional. This was a major setback for the abolitionists!

Buchanan's Inauguration 2003001r

Buchanan, President at the time of this decision, was satisfied with this decision. The Democrats had sought to eliminate the anti-slavery elements from the Missouri Compromise for years and here it was. Slavery would not be ended until the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments were added to the Constitution after the Civil War.

It’s time to jump into todays exploration of the Dred Scott Case and the three Presidents and Chief Justice so closely associated with it…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4145 Words ]
    

   

Quotations Related to SLAVERY:

    

“Slavery and freedom cannot exist together.”
— Ernestine L. Rose

“Slavery discourages arts and manufactures.”
— George Mason

“Slavery exists. It is black in the South, and white in the North.”
— Andrew Johnson

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary

JerryPhotoWe continue our exploration of the anti-slavery movement during the 19th century. Yesterday we looked at the roe of Frederick Douglass and today we extend that look to the American Anti-Slavery Society. this society was established to promote the abolition of slavery, defined by most of its founders as applying to both black slaves AND women.

Founded in 1833, those members opposed to supporting equality for women split off from the main group in 1840. Some of the most vocal supporters, in addition to two free black men, Frederick Douglass & William Wells Brown, were a pair of white, Quaker women, Angeline and Sarah Grimke. The Society was active politically until after the Civil War and Emancipation.

So, let’s proceed with our exploration of this society…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2010 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3682 Words ]

   

Quotations Related to SLAVERY

“All socialism involves slavery.”
— Herbert Spenser

“A great fortune is a great slavery.”
— Lucius Annaeus Seneca

“A life of reaction is a life of slavery, intellectually and spiritually. One must fight for a life of action, not reaction.”
— Rita Mae Brown

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary

JerryPhotoOne of the great figures of the 19th century quest for equality was Frederick Douglass. Born into slavery, he bravely escaped to the north were he became educated an set forth in his quest of freedom for all — blacks, women, etc. He used his powers of oratory to challenge the status quo by the force of his speech and writing.

He was able to meet the men of importance with dignity and a firm idealism. He supported Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation to free the slaves in the south. He fought hard for the ratification of the 13th, 14th, & 15th amendments to our Constitution. Once the basic rights had been incorporated into the “Law of the Land,” he focused his attention on gaining similar rights for women. He stood with Elizabeth Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in this quest. Unfortunately, he passed on before they were realized.

So let us begin our exploration of the life and work of this Great Man in History…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2010 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4105 Words ]

   

Quotations Related to FREDERICK DOUGLASS

“At this moment — from whence came the spirit, I don’t know — I resoled to fight.”
— Frederick Douglass

“My long-crushed spirit rose… the day had passed forever when I could  be a slave.”
— Frederick Douglass

“I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong.”
— Frederick Douglass

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary

Due to injury, this commentary will be added later. Please check back. Thank you.  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2010 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3697 Words ]

   

Quotations Related to MARCH

“Every life is a march from innocence, through temptation, to virtue or vice.”
— Lyman Abbot

“Even if a minefield or the abyss should lie before me, I will march straight ahead without looking back.”
— Zhu Rongji

“Higher education must lead the march back to the fundamentals of human relationships, to the old discovery that is ever new, that man does not live by bread alone.”
— John Hannah

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