Skip to content

Prof. Boerner's Explorations

Thoughts and Essays that explore the world of Technology, Computers, Photography, History and Family.

Archive

Tag: United Nations

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis day, March 14th, has seen some important events in the history of our country. During this primary season of the Presidential Election campaign, we hear a lot about Town Hall Meetings and Caucuses; it was on this day that the first town hall meeting was held in Boston. This day witnessed George Washington side-tracking a potential officer coup d’étate by Continental Army officers with his "Newburgh Address." It was also the day that witnessed UN forces retake Seoul during the Korean War. Eli Whitney was granted a patent for his "Cotton Engine" that made the growing of cotton profitable and ultimately triggered the Civil War to maintain access to slave labor. The FBI issued its first "10 Most Wanted" list on this day and Jack Ruby was sentenced to death for the shooting of Lee Harvey Oswald. So, let’s take a closer look at some of these events…

faneuil_hall

This day witnessed several major milestones in the history of our American democracy. In 1743, the first recorded town meeting occurred at Faneuil Hall in Boston. Interestingly, this original meeting became the opportunity for the community to become informed about issues rather than to allow the people to vote on issues of current importance as is done with the caucuses being held during this election season, especially in the Republican Party’s primary landscape. On this day, in 1783, just after the signing of the Treaty of Paris, officers of the Continental Army were ready to rebel and take over the fledgling American government over a pension dispute. As they met in Newburgh, they were ready to march on the Congress when George Washington delivered an unscheduled speech that became known as the "Newburgh Declaration." Both of these events would allow our experiment in representative government, unique in the world at that time, that would culminate in the ratification of the strong United States Constitution in 1789. There, again, Washington arose over the populace zeitgeist to insist on a democratic presidency rather than the monarchy that the colonists were used to from their European heritage.

BE030041 (RM) TMH 03/14/2011At the time that the patent for the "Cotton Engine" (Cotton Gin) was issued to Eli Whitney in 1794, the slave-based economy of the southern states was not well understood. Processing cotton, once grown and harvested, was an intensive, difficult job because of all the seeds in the cotton bolls. This was hard, handwork; not the type of work that non-slaves would do! The cotton gin enabled large amounts of cotton to be process, the seeds removed (and themselves processed into oil) and the cotton ready to spin. This made the planting of large fields of cotton economically attractive, but required slave labor to tend, given all the weeding and harvesting required. This made a slave-based economic system emerge as the key factor in the southern states. As the abolition movement in the north gained momentum, the southern states feared the spread of this non-slave economy into the south, destroying their agrarian way of life. The roots of the civil war might actually be traced back to this invention!

In 1951, the Korean War was the major event on most people’s minds. This was the first "hot" conflict in the Cold War between the democratic Western Powers and the communistic Soviet Union. Each of these major powers had their proxy states: the UN and the United States defended South Korea while the communist People’s Republic of China (PRC) supported North Korea; Korea had been partitioned at the 38th parallel after World War II. This conflict seemed to carry on interminably. On this day, the US Forces, under the UN umbrella, launched Operation  Ripper in 1951. This operation would recapture the South Korean capital of Seoul for the second time. The Korean War would continue until 1953 when two major events occurred: Joseph Stalin, the hard-core dictator of the Soviet Union and developer of the communist expansion scheme, died. The second event that brought this war to a armistice was the election, in 1952, of General Dwight D. Eisenhower, leader of the Allies in Europe during World War II, was elected President. The Korean peninsula remains a hotspot in today’s world.

fbi-most-wanted-fbi_gov_1

Two major law enforcement events also occurred on this day. In 1950, J. Edgar Hoover issued the FBI’s first "10 Most Wanted" list. This list identified those fugitives from justice that were considered the greatest threat to society at any moment. It would help promote capture of the FBI’s "toughest guys" by eliciting info from the American people. The second legal event on this day occurred in 1964 when Jack Ruby was sentenced to death for the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald, the suspected assassin of President John F. Kennedy. A Texas Court of Appeal would overturn the verdict and ordered a new trial. Ruby would die of lung cancer in 1967 while awaiting his new trial.

And now a piece of trivia for the day. Who was the first president to file an income tax return? The answer is Warren G. Harding, president from 1921 to 1923. He was associated with cronies from Ohio who were corrupt; they were convicted and sent to prison! The "Teapot Dome" scandal occurred during his administration and he was known to have at least four affairs during his time in office; Clinton’s indiscretions may not be all that bad! Overall, Harding is considered to be one of the worse presidents that we have had in this country.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1745 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Jack Ruby:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/jack_ruby.html ]

    

“Maybe something can be saved, something can be done.”
— Jack Ruby

“Someone had to do it. That son of a bitch killed my President.”
— Jack Ruby

“I am as innocent regarding any conspiracy as any of you gentlemen in the room.”
— Jack Ruby

“It may not be too late, whatever happens, if our President, Lyndon Johnson, knew the truth from me. But if I am eliminated, there won’t be any way of knowing.”
— Jack Ruby

“Jackie Kennedy was magnificent in the days and weeks immediately following her husband’s assassination. She was especially wonderful to me.”
— Pierre Salinger

“I have been used for a purpose, and there will be a certain tragic occurrence happening if you don’t take my testimony and somehow vindicate me so my people don’t suffer because of what I have done.”
— Jack Ruby

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis day was distinguished by a three major events in legal history. In 1803, the United States Supreme Court, under the leadership of Chief Justice John Marshall (one of the Founding Fathers), passed down a series of decisions that helped define the boundaries between federal rights and states rights under our Constitution. Among these decisions, the case of Marbury v. Madison defined the dominance of federal rights over the states in several major areas. This day in 1841 also saw former President John Quincy Adams, the son of our second President, John Adams, defend the rebellious slaves who were being transported aboard the La Amistad before the U.S. Supreme Court. And, finally, this day in 1868 witnessed the Impeachment Trial of President Andrew Johnson before the U.S. House of Representatives for firing his Secretary of War; he would be acquitted by the U.S. Senate later.

Fall of the Alamo

This day also witnessed a couple of significant battles during our country’s history. In 1836, General Santa Anna lead the Mexican forces against the Texan’s using the Alamo as their fortification in San Antonio. These brave Americans were fighting to create an independent Republic in Texas. Santa Anna’s forces stormed the Alamo on March 6th, Killing most of the Alamo’s defenders, including General Travis. Also on this day in 1991, the coalition forces, under a United Nations mandate, began their ground campaign against the forces of Saddam Hussein and his Iraqi troops; the coalition forces were fighting to restore Kuwait’s independence. The well-coordinated forces of the coalition successfully routed the Iraqi troops.

Voice_of_America_Bethany_Relay_Station

On a different note, this day in 1942 found a new shortwave radio broadcast, the Voice of America, beamed into the countries of occupied Europe with news from America. These broadcasts spread the news of what was actually happening in World War II, whether good news for the Allies or bad. This service was later expanded to include the Mediterranean and North Africa theaters as well as the Pacific theater of war. These broadcasts continued during the Cold War and into the present. Broadcasts were in the language of the various cultural and national groups around the world.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1036 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Sam Houston:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/s/sam_houston.html ]

    

“Texas has yet to learn submission to any oppression, come from what source it may.”
— Sam Houston

“Whether his policy was right or wrong, he built up the glory of the nation.”
— Sam Houston

“A leader is someone who helps improve the lives of other people or improve the system they live under.”
— Sam Houston

“I am aware that in presenting myself as the advocate of the Indians and their rights, I shall stand very much alone.”
— Sam Houston

“I would give no thought of what the world might say of me, if I could only transmit to posterity the reputation of an honest man.”
— Sam Houston

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

  

     

Commentary:

JerryPhotoFollowing this country’s long experience in the Pacific area of Asia, we were definitely seeking another shooting war. We were working with Europe to help them recover the devastation of World War II through the Marshall Plan. We had just survived the Berlin Airlift and now the was tension raising between North and South Korea. With unification elections schedule for 1960, we cancelled those election, which set off the North Korean who were expecting victory. (We would repeat this four years later in Vietnam!).

Chosin

This trigger the incursion of North Korean troops, wit their Chinese allies, into the south across the 38th Parallel. This prompted the South Koreans to appeal to the UN Security Council for help. But a Veto of the resolution by any of the Permanent Members (U.S., Britain, France, The Republic of China, and the Soviet Union) would result in no action. Since this Korean Police Action would become a Proxy War between the US and Soviet Union, the Soviets were expected to veto any action

But, the Soviet delegate became upset at the proceedings and withdrew from the meeting and the resolution was approved. On this date in 1950 President Harry Truman signed the order ground troops to join the United Nations peacekeepers. General Douglas MacArthur was sent to Korea to command operations.

“With both North and South Korea sponsored by external powers, the Korean War was a proxy war. From a military science perspective, it combined strategies and tactics of World War I and World War II: it began with a mobile campaign of swift infantry attacks followed by air bombing raids, but became a static trench war by July 1951.”  (Wikipedia)

Let’s proceed in our exploration of the start of US Military involvement in the Korean War… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 4430 Words ]

  

Quotations Related to KOREAN:

  

“I got called back into the Navy during the Korean War.”
— Daniel J. Evans

“40 percent of North Korean children suffer from stunted growth. 20 percent are underweight.”
— Tom Lantos

“I don’t think the current regime of South Korea will deal actively with the issue of North Korean defectors.”
— Kim Y. Sam

continue reading…

Edited by Gerald Boerner

 

Commentary

JerryPhotoUNICEF, a name that now is generally synonymous with the defense of children’s right, including health care and safety from abuse, was started on this day in 1946 Austria to help those children displaced during World War II. Its role and effectiveness has kept pace with the needs of children, especially those in the so-called “thied world.”

We will explore some of the facts and services provided by that international organization. Join us in that quest now…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2010 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 2742 Words ]

   

Quotations Related to UNICEF

“UNICEF has made the most rewarding thing that I have ever done in my life.”
— Nana Mouskouri

“I’ve been a Goodwill Ambassador for the UNICEF and the UNICEF family for more than twelve years.”
— Danny Glover

“Bulgaria is the first state that has been awarded for its excellent fight against iodine deficiency by UNICEF.”
— Anatoly Karpov

continue reading…