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Thoughts and Essays that explore the world of Technology, Computers, Photography, History and Family.

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Tag: World War II

Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumb_thumb_

I first read Anne Frank’s diary while taking second year German in college. This was the German version! I believe that this made the impact of this reading even more meaningful. As the German phrases, with their precision of meaning, yielded their richness of meaning. When this is coupled with the fact that the diary was written by a 15 year old girl hiding from the Nazis in occupied Amsterdam..

One can only wonder what she was going through each day. But wait! we do know what she was thinking because she recorded it in here diary; that diary was retrieved and revealed to the world by her father returned from Auschwitz after the war. He then shared this intimate account of little Anne’s experience in that small set of attic rooms GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1676 Words ]
    

    

4-30-12 ANNE FRANKAnne Frank. — AP Photo/HO
    

Born on June 12, 1929, Anne Frank was a German-Jewish teenager who was forced to go into hiding during the Holocaust. She and her family, along with four others, spent 25 months during World War II in an annex of rooms above her father’s office in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

After being betrayed to the Nazis, Anne, her family, and the others living with them were arrested and deported to Nazi concentration camps. In March of 1945, nine months after she was arrested, Anne Frank died of typhus at Bergen-Belsen. She was fifteen years old.

Her diary, saved during the war by one of the family’s helpers, Miep Gies, was first published in 1947. Today, her diary has been translated into 67 languages and is one of the most widely read books in the world.  (Anne Frank Web Site)

    

Quotations Related to Anne Frank:

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“Think of all the beauty still left around you and be happy.”
— Anne Frank

“Despite everything, I believe that people are really good at heart.”
— Anne Frank

“Laziness may appear attractive, but work gives satisfaction.”
— Anne Frank

“Boys will be boys. And even that wouldn’t matter if only we could prevent girls from being girls.”
— Anne Frank

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbWe have seen some major events on March 6th over the past two hundred years. In 1836, this day witnessed the storming of the Alamo by Santa Ana’s forces; the 163 Texian defenders were overwhelmed by the Mexican army and most defenders lost their lives. But the Battle of san Jacinto a short time later would see the Texians win their independence and establish the Republic of Texas. The rallying cry for that latter battle was “Remember the Alamo!” The state of Texas would later make the Spanish Mission in San Antonio a historic site.

Fall-of-the-alamo-gentilz_1844

Also on this day we received two life and death decisions from our court system. The first, in 1857, the U.S. Supreme Court found that the slave, Dred Scott, did not have grounds to gain freedom for himself or his family. This led to his continued enslavement and fed the fires of the abolitionists. More recently, in 1951, Ethel and Julius Rosenberg would face the court in their trial as spies for the Soviet Union. They were accused of passing nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union during World War II. They would be convicted and executed in 1953.

A milestone in broadcasting was passed in 1981 when Walter Cronkite, the dean of evening news anchors. On this night, Cronkite who had been the anchor of The CBS Evening News for nineteen years would retire his anchor spot. Dan Rather would take over the evening anchor desk. Cronkite was remembered for his ending of each broadcast with the iconic words, “And that’s the way it is: Friday, March 6, 1981.”

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 906 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Slavery:

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“Slavery exists. It is black in the South, and white in the North.”
— Andrew Johnson

“Since the days of slavery, if you were a good singer or dancer, it was your job to perform for the master after dinner.”
— Spike Lee

“Slavery can only be abolished by raising the character of the people who compose the nation; and that can be done only by showing them a higher one.”
— Maria W. Chapman

“Should slavery be abolished there, (and it is an event, which, from these circumstances, we may reasonably expect to be produced in time) let it be remembered, that the Quakers will have had the merit of its abolition.”
— Thomas Clarkson

“Pervading nationalism imposes its dominion on man today in many different forms and with an aggressiveness that spares no one. The challenge that is already with us is the temptation to accept as true freedom what in reality is only a new form of slavery.”
— Pope John Paul II

“The North understand it better – they have told us for twenty years that their object was to pen up slavery within its present limits – surround it with a border of free States, and like the scorpion surrounded with fire, they will make it sting itself to death.”
— Robert Toombs

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis day through the past 150 years, recent history really, has witnessed a number of significant events. Starting with one major international event and four domestic events. The international event, this day, in 1886, witnessed a German patent being awarded to Karl Benz, a German engineer, for a three-wheeled, gasoline-powered vehicle — the “Motorwagen.” This was the first true automobile in the world. It did not really catch on until Benz’ wife made a 65 mile trip to visit her mother using the Motorwagen. She only had to stop at the Apotheke (Pharmacy) for fuel. She also had to visit a boot maker to put leather linings on the brakes, the first relining of a car’s brakes!

1885Benz

This initial model was enhanced to a four-wheeled vehicle once Benz worked out a steering mechanism for the front wheels. The luxury nameplate automobile, Mercedes–Benz, emerged from this humble motorized vehicle. Benz’ invention demonstrated that motorized transportation was feasible. As a result of this original vehicle, we now have paved highways, including the Autobahns in Germany and the Interstate Highway System in the United States. These highways have tied together a nation’s cities and expedited the mobility of the population. The use of the refined gasoline helped to revolutionize industry just like steam power did earlier; both power sources drove the industrial revolution. It’s hard to imagine what life would be like today if were were still traveling by horse and buggy!

An event that bridged the international and domestic scenes took place in 2002. President George W. Bush, in his State of the Union address to a joint session of Congress, labeled North Korea, Iran, and Iraq as the “Axis of Evil,” the main source of international terrorism. This was partially a response to the al-Qaeda-sponsored attack on the Twin Towers in New York City and the Pentagon in suburban Washington, D.C. After the end of the Cold War ushered in by the efforts of President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Premiere Mikhail Gorbachev in the early 1980s much of the major conflicts between the Soviets and the NATO were eliminated; this was not the end of world tensions since small terrorists groups sprung up to push for their own agendas. The major fear was that some of the rogue states, such as those identified by President George W. Bush, would gain access to nuclear devices and use them against the west. This “Axis of Evil” was thought to be a conduit for such access, especially since North Korea was known to have nuclear capability. It was feared that Iraq and Iran would gain that capability as well. In fact, one of the major arguments used by the junior Bush’s Administration to gain U.N. sanctions to invade Iraq in 2002 was just that — Iraq was thought to have WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction). The U.S., with only minor support of a few of our European allies, invaded both Afghanistan and Iraq on the pretense of searching for and destroying these al-Qaeda forces and WMD. But the underlying goal was to establish democratic republics in these Islamic countries WHETHER THE POPULATION WANTED IT OR NOT!

family vacations cooperstown

Getting back to the domestic front, this day was significant for two other events — the establishment of the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1936 and launch in 1941 of the last U.S. battleship, the USS Missouri. This is the day, in 1936, when the Baseball Writer’s Association of America named the first five American baseball legends to be inducted into the new Professional Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to be opened in 1939. This Hall of Fame would be built in Cooperstown, New York. The first five inductees were — Babe Ruth, Ty Cobb, Honus Wagner, Christy Matheson and Walter Johnson. These great players would lead a host of others over the years. Induction into the Hall of Fame was the goal of every player who took the field for a Major League team; it would also be the dream of every 10 or 11-year-old who took up ball, bat, and glove to play on their first Peewee League team. It became the “Mecca” or “Jerusalem” of any serious baseball fan. If they didn’t get there in actuality, it became an important item on their personal “bucket list.” Over the years, a wing was added to honor the women who played in the All-American Professional Women’s Baseball League during World War II. A wing was also establish to honor those great players in the Negro leagues before Jackie Robinson was able to bridge that color barrier in 1947. Visiting this Hall of Fame became the American youth’s quest for the “Holy Grail.”

USS_Missouri_watching_over_USS_Arizona_-_Pearl_Harbor

The other major event of significance on the home front was the launching, in 1941, of the last Battleship, The USS Missouri, for the U.S. Navy. Prior to World War II naval power had been the key to victory in any international history. During the days of the English fight against the Spanish Armada through the War of 1812, naval power were enforced by the large ships with several different gun decks and large number of canons, the “Ships of the Line.” At the end of the 19th century, England built the HMS Dreadnought, a large battleship that was equipped with many high-bore guns that could send their projectiles for 20 or more miles against opposing navies. No longer would the ships of one navy line up in a straight line sail past each other and firing their canons against the opposing lines of naval ships. As the two rows passed each other, firing their canons into their opposing number as they passed. This was something like two boxers standing toe to toe and hitting each other.

The HMS Dreadnought introduced a new style of naval battle in which these mighty ships would fire at enemy forces, either in the sea or on land, and they move on to the next ship. In World War II we remember the super-Battleships like the SMS Bismarck and SMS Prinz Eugen (Germany), the HMS Hood & HMS Prince of Wales (Britain), the Yamato (Japan) and the USS Missouri, USS Iowa, & USS Arizona (United States). Sea battles between these floating weapon fortifications would take place over the horizon with the enemy out of the line of sight! But this was the end of the line for these large battle wagons as World War II would prove the power of Naval Aviation; a flight of planes from a sea-based Aircraft carrier would be able to sink even the largest of these battleships. They would continue to serve in the bombardment of landing beaches, especially in the Pacific theatre of operations. But they were no longer the power houses of the seas. The “Mighty Mo” would have the honor of hosting the delegations from the Japanese and Allied nations during the surrender ceremonies that ended World War II. RIP, dear battleships, you served your country well and were the king of the mountain for so many decades; may you always be remembered for your heroics.

Murders_in_the_Rue_Morgue_1971

Finally, we remember that haunting poem that was published on this day in 1845, “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe. Poe would go on to write such short stories as “The Murders in the Rue Morgue,” “The Cask of Amontillado," and, of course, "The Pit and the Pendulum". He was the first American writer to try to make a living at only publishing his  works. But the poem, “The Raven,” appeared in the New York Evening Mirror and brought Poe immediate popularity. His writings helped promote the science fiction genre which had been started by the works of Jules Verne in France. He was criticized by many of the more important thinkers and writers of the 19th century such as William Butler Yeats, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Aldous Huxley. Most of the recent generations of our generations probably remember his works through their adaptation to the movie screen by that directing genius, Alfred Hitchcock.

So today is marked by influences in transportation, sea power, and sports remembrances. That simple motor-driven vehicle created and patented by Karl Benz on this day in 1886 triggered a number of technologies that have culminated in the hybrid and electric cars of today. Many of the advances of the automobile were incorporated into the huge battleships, such as the USS Missouri that was launched in 1941; while these battleships would be antiquated by the aircraft carrier and naval aviation, the “Mighty Mo” would serve us well during World War II. The American male’s hearts are uplifted by their identification with the great men and their memorabilia housed in the Professional Baseball Hall of Fame; these are the men that we have patterned our play after and pictured ourselves as a Willie Mays or Sandy Koufax as we played our hearts out. And the events of 911 were exploited to identify the post-Cold War terrorists as being supported by that triumvirate of countries identified by George W. Bush as the “Axis of Evil”; unfortunately their presumed tie-in with al-Qaeda and 911 led to a Vietnam-type of war in Iraq and Afghanistan with the intent to establish a democracy upon a people who may not be ready for it or even desirability of it. Hopefully, we will have the wisdom to avoid such intervention for the wrong reasons in the future.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 2097 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Edgar Allan Poe:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/e/edgar_allan_poe.html ]

    

“All that we see or seem is but a dream within a dream.”
— Edgar Allan Poe

“I became insane, with long intervals of horrible sanity.”
— Edgar Allan Poe

“I have great faith in fools; self-confidence my friends call it.”
— Edgar Allan Poe

“Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there, wondering, fearing, doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before.”
— Edgar Allan Poe

“Experience has shown, and a true philosophy will always show, that a vast, perhaps the larger portion of the truth arises from the seemingly irrelevant.”
— Edgar Allan Poe

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbToday in History features one major international and three major domestic events. The international event was the discovery, in 1972, an Imperial Japanese soldier, Sgt. Shoichi Yokoi, in a jungle cave on the island of Guam. Our U.S. Marines took the island of Guam during the summer of 1944 after a hard fought battle during the Pacific island-hopping campaign on our way to the home islands of Japan during World War II. These Japanese soldiers were known for their tenacity, hard fighting, and resistance to surrendering to the American troops. Sgt. Yokoi was found living in a cave using weapons and tools that he had crafted himself during this period of time.

USMC-M-Guam-Orote

On the domestic front, the major event associated with this day in history took place in a small town in the Sierra Nevada foothills, Coloma, California, in 1848. While building a sawmill for John A. Sutter, the contractor, James W. Marshall, discovered flakes of gold in the American River. Why is this event so important? It triggered one of the biggest migrations to the west coast of our country into the former Mexican territory of (Alta) California. This event, the California Gold Rush of 1848; these “Forty-Niners,” flocked to the gold fields seeking their fortunes. They came via almost every possible mode of transportation — by steamship, wagon train, horseback, and even by foot. They traveled through Indian territory or around the treacherous cape of South America. But most failed to make their fortunes and many died as a result of the elements or lawlessness of the boom towns built at the gold fields and then abandoned to the elements when the gold ran out to become another ghost town. Who were the winners? The merchants who sold supplies to these hopeful miners and to the new cities of Sacramento and San Francisco. The population of the territory swelled, the former Mexican inhabitants were replaced by the new settlers, and the territory finally became the 31st state in 1850.

California_Gold_Rush

On a sadder note, this day in 1956 witnessed the acquittal of the two men accused of kidnapping and murdering of an African American teenager visiting Mississippi from the Chicago area in 1955. This teen, Emmett Till, was accused of flirting with a white woman working in her husband’s store. They took him from the home of the relatives that he was visiting, transported him into the woods, and murdered him after torturing him as punishment for “not knowing his place.” Till was the victim of the cultural differences between the North (Chicago area) and the South (rural Mississippi) during the waning days of the reign of Jim Crow. The men, J.W. Milam and Roy Bryant were accused of the crime and brought to trial. He was tried in Mississippi by an all-white jury who readily acquitted them of the crime. Only through extensive activity by civil rights activists did the facts arise; these men confessed to the crimes in a Look Magazine interview, but due to double jeopardy limitations they could not be retried using the confession. But this incident was an early skirmish in the Civil Rights Movement that reached its fruition in the 1960s under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Yesterday, we shared the famous Apple Computer commercial at the Super Bowl in 1984 that introduced the Macintosh Computer. Today saw the first opportunity of the people of America to purchase this cute little computer with its 128K of memory, 9” black and white high-resolution screen, a mouse (pointing device) and preinstalled software for word processing (MacWrite) and graphics (MacPaint). This computer was the first wide-distribution computer to use a Graphic User Interface (GUI) and was relatively expensive, especially compared to the IBM-PC. It was the darling of the creative and artistic types then and has continued to be to this day. It sold like hotcakes and started the phenomenon that is Apple. These computers blossomed and remains innovative as do its “little brothers,” the iPod, iPhone, and the iPad. They all reflected the free-thinking of their developer, Steve Jobs.

Mac_Design_Team

On the lighter side, several important events that were not as earthshaking but probably impacted more people than the above events occurred on this day. A school teacher, Christian K. Nelson, received a patent on this day in 1922 for combining a block of ice cream and chocolate coating into the iconic snack food, the Eskimo Pie ice cream bar. In 1935, a small brewing company in Virginia was the first to package their beer and ale in the first beer cans. And, an inventor, Percy Spencer, who lacked even a grammar school education, received a patent for the microwave oven in 1950. These small items have been helpful to more people than any of the other events discussed above.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1416 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Macintosh:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/macintosh.html ]

    

“I think the Macintosh proves that everyone can have a bitmapped display.”
— Bill Joy

“My first Macintosh was a 128k machine which I upgraded to 512k the minute it became possible.”
— Buffy Sainte-Marie

“Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs founded Apple Inc, which set the computing world on its ear with the Macintosh in 1984.”
— Kevin Mitnick

“The Macintosh having shipped, his next agenda was to turn the rest of Apple into the Mac group. He had perceived the rest of Apple wasn’t as creative or motivated as the Mac team, and what you need to take over the company are managers, not innovators or technical people.”
— Andy Hertzfeld

“Most people have no concept of how an automatic transmission works, yet they know how to drive a car. You don’t have to study physics to understand the laws of motion to drive a car. You don’t have to understand any of this stuff to use Macintosh.”
— Steve Jobs

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbToday’s events are a very mixed group of happenings. A significant international event was the death of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Ireland who died in 1901. She ruled the British Empire for 63 years. After her beloved husband, Albert, died, she mourned for his for the rest of her life. During her lifetime, she witnessed the development of many technologies, including steam power, the industrial revolution, invention of photography, and the British Empire included about 25% of the countries around the world. Also we witnessed the introduction of a very innovative computer, the Apple Macintosh, in a commercial during the Super Bowl by Steve Jobs and company in 1984. During the World War II era, we witnessed the initial splitting of the uranium atom by the Columbia University (New York) Cyclotron in 1939 and the landing of Allied forces on Anzio Beach (Italy) in 1944.

Queen Victoria Monument

This day was also marked by some significant events for women. It was on this day in 1973 that the Supreme Court handed down its blockbuster decision in Roe v. Wade that legalized abortions for the women of this country. It is also the day that witnessed the unanimous confirmation of former U.N. Ambassador Madeleine Albright as the first woman Secretary of State in 1997 during President Clinton’s term in office. On a less positive note, this day witnessed mathematics professor Ted Kaczynski, the Unabomber, agreed to a plea deal that put him in prison without parole. So today was quite memorable.

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 759 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Queen Victoria:

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“Being married gives one one’s position like nothing else can.”
— Queen Victoria

“Being pregnant is an occupational hazard of being a wife.”
— Queen Victoria

“The Queen is most anxious to enlist everyone in checking this mad, wicked folly of ‘Women’s Rights’. It is a subject which makes the Queen so furious that she cannot contain herself.”
— Queen Victoria

“I would venture to warn against too great intimacy with artists as it is very seductive and a little dangerous.”
— Queen Victoria

“For a man to strike any women is most brutal, and I, as well as everyone else, think this far worse than any attempt to shoot, which, wicked as it is, is at least more comprehensible and more courageous.”
— Queen Victoria

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Introductory Comments:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumbThis day includes only one international event of note, but it is one that is of the upmost importance to this country. Numerous events involved with America itself have also occurred on this day. But let’s start out with a consideration of the international event, the ratification of the Treaty of Paris by the Continental Congress in 1784. But how is this an international event, you might ask. The Treaty of Paris formally ended the Revolutionary War between Britain and its American colonies — now that is a major international event. This treaty gave the new colony a set of borders that would define the new country. These borders were the Great Lakes to the North, the Spanish territory of Florida on the South, the Mississippi River on the West and the Atlantic Ocean on the East. Only the lands east of the Appalachian mountains had been extensively settled, so this new country had a great deal of land to explore and settle.

Dixie Clipper_Boeing-314_1

On the home front, we had three Connecticut towns adopt “The Fundamental Orders” in 1639. This was one of the earliest democratic constitutions in the colonies along with the Mayflower Compact. Most of the American colonies were settled under decrees from the King granting settlement rights to a few wealthy patrons. More recently, this day saw the start of NBCs Today Show hosted by Dave Garroway in 1952. This was the grand-daddy of the morning news and talk shows; its format was copied by the other TV networks. It was also on this day in 1954 that Yankee slugger Joe DiMaggio married Marilyn Monroe. It was also the day in 1985 that saw Martina Navratilova join Chris Evert and Jimmy Connors as the only tennis players to win 100 professional tennis tournaments.

But this day saw two major innovations introduced into this country. In 1914, Henry Ford introduced a manufacturing innovation in its new Model T plant in Highland Park, Michigan. With this assembly line, each worker performed a single task as the car passed by their station. This was in contrast with the traditional manufacturing process that saw a small team of craftsmen building an automobile by performing all tasks required. The new assembly line enabled more productivity and enabled the price of the auto to be dropped to that affordable by the average worker. It would also enable our manufacturing facilities to produce war materiel for World War II in order for the U.S. to become the “Arsenal of Democracy”, as FDR put it.

Ford Model T Military Field Ambulance

The other major innovation was the development of passenger aircraft from the early open air seats to an aircraft that enabled passengers to travel over long distances in comfort. During World War II, FDR was a passenger on the “Dixie Clipper”, Pan American’s flying seaplane (a Boeing 314 seaplane), on his trip to the Casablanca Conference to meet with Winston Churchill in 1943. FDR was the first sitting President to use an airplane to make such a trip. It was probably a wise decision due to the continued presence of German U-Boats patrolling the Atlantic during the Battle of the Atlantic. This helped to give the population confidence to fly to their destinations after the war rather than travelling by train or steamship. Our technology had come of age!

We now will proceed to examine some of the events that are associated with day in history... GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1101 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Casablanca:

[ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/casablanca.html ]

    

“If it’s December 1941 in Casablanca, what time is it in New York?”
— Howard Koch

“Well everybody in Casablanca has problems. Yours may work out.”
— Humphrey Bogart

“Battles are won by slaughter and maneuver. The greater the general, the more he contributes in maneuver, the less he demands in slaughter.”
— Winston Churchill

“Most people would rather stay home and watch Casablanca for the fourth time or the 10th time on Turner Classic Movies than go see Matrix 12 or whatever the hell the flavor of the month is.”
— Joseph Bologna

“Churchill knew the importance of peace, and he also knew the price of it. Churchill finally got his voice, of course. He stressed strategy, but it was his voice that armed England at last with the old-fashioned moral concepts of honor and duty, justice and mercy.”
— Suzanne Fields

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Edited by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumbWe remember the years of World War II for its Big Bands playing swing music. The leaders of these bands, like Glenn Miller, Tommy Dorsey, Woody Herman, Les Brown, Count Basie & Artie Shaw, were famous for their bands. Their lead singers, like Frank Sinatra, Bing Crosby & Rosemary Clooney, also became cult heroes. A number of female singing groups also became popular. One of the most notable of these groups was The Andrew Sisters along with the McGuire Sisters and The Chordettes.

Andrew Sisters

The three sisters that formed the Andrew Sisters’ voices blended melodiously with their incredible syncopation.  This was made famous for catchy tunes like “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy” caught on, especially after the release of the Abbott and Costello movie, Buck Privates. But they were also well-known for their performances of songs such as “Rum and Coca-Cola”, “Bir Mir Bist Du Schoen”, “Chattanooga Choo Choo”, and “Apple Blossom Time”.

They were among the first groups to sing in the rhythm and blues (jump blues) styling. This catchy tune caught on and became a favorite for the sisters. The beat is still attention-getting when heard by today’s younger generations. They are incredible to hear; take advantage of listening to some of their songs on YouTube!

But, it is once again time to dive into the wonderfully melodious music of the Andrew Sisters and learn more about their lives… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2012 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 3315 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Bob Hope:

    

“A sense of humor is good for you. Have you ever heard of a laughing hyena with heart burn?”
— Bob Hope

“I grew up with six brothers. That’s how I learned to dance – waiting for the bathroom.”
— Bob Hope

“I have seen what a laugh can do. It can transform almost unbearable tears into something bearable, even hopeful.”
— Bob Hope

continue reading…

Written by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumb_thumb_

Again the temps here in River City dipped close to freezing. In our neighborhood, the low was about 36 degrees, but at the nearby March Reserve Air Force Base, they apparently dipped down into the mid 20s. That’s cold! Today, we are expecting a high of about 63, a full ten degrees less than yesterday. We are also going to have the rain clouds roll in. Tonight the low is supposed to get down to 37 here.

Manzanar_Flag

What’s more, there is a rain storm heading our way. It’s supposed to hit us after midnight. The weather people predict that this will be a real “soaker”; the low will sit off the coast where it can pick up water from the sea and drop it in the LA Basic. The recent showers have only been enough to get us a little wet. But this storm could deliver over an inch of rain. The local mountains, like Big Bear and Lake Arrowhead, will get up to sixteen inches of fresh snow to go with their man-made snow. The skiers and snowboarders should be thrilled. BTW, for those of you in the mid-west who see “real” snow storms, this may seem strange, but here in SoCal the mountain resorts depend on man-made snow more than that delivered by Mother Nature!

I look forward to seeing some great snow-capped mountains throughout the San Gabriel and San Bernardino ranges on Tuesday morning. I want to get out and get some photos of that scene. If I do, I’ll be posting them on my page. In the meantime, we have prepared the back yard for the coming storm. My old scooter is under cover of both the patio and a tarp. The furniture has been repositioned so as to be out of the rain. Bring it on.

But we are more fortunate than those who live in the areas of the San Gabriel Valley hit so hard by the winds a week ago. Most of them have now had their electricity restored and they are no longer freezing (figuratively, at least) in their homes. The downed trees have been, by and large, removed from their cars, houses and power lines. But the city workers have piled up the cut limbs along roadways awaiting later pickup by city crews.

Some of it could be used as firewood, of course, but much of it comes from trees that are not very good for burning in family fireplaces. Therefore, they sit along the roads along with the debris from the cutting process — sawdust, small branches, leaves, etc. These will be swept into the storm drains and catch basins during a heavy rain such as we’re expecting tonight and tomorrow. So, let’s just hope that the city crews can get things cleaned up enough to avoid flooding those residents hit so hard by the initial wind damage. Let’s all keep them in our prayers…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1898 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Internment (Camps):

    

“You know, I grew up in two American internment camps, and at that time I was very young.”
— George Takei

“I was six months old at the time that I was taken, with my mother and father, from Sacramento, California, and placed in internment camps in the United States.”
— Robert Matsui

“February 19, 1942, is the year in which Executive Order 9066 was signed, and this was the order that called for the exclusion and internment of all Japanese Americans living on the west coast during World War II.”
— Xavier Becerra

“I spent my boyhood behind the barbed wire fences of American internment camps and that part of my life is something that I wanted to share with more people.”
— George Takei

    
Note:
Today we are attending to one of the aftermath effects of the Pearl Harbor attack that is not among America’s Proudest Moments: The Imprisonment of Japanese-American citizens because of their ethnic heritage. The were removed from their communities, sent to the desert, and punished for their genetics. For a first-hand photographic account of their plight, see Ansel Adams, Born Free and Equal: The Story of Loyal Japanese Americans (1893343057)
    

    
Thinking about the Japanese American Internment Camps…

    

But on to the primary focus of the day. Over the last several days we have discussed the reaction of FDR and the Congress to the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. A formal declaration of war was issued on the eighth and our forces were being mobilized. On this day, the eleventh, the European Axis Powers (Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy) declared war on the United States; we were finally joining the forces of Britain and the Soviets in their fight against the Axis. So, like Germany, we were embarking on a two-front war. The partial mobilization that had started as part of the Lend-Lease Act would now become a full-blown manufacturing operation that would make the difference in the war.

But today we look more specifically at the racist and discriminatory treatment directed at the Japanese American population, especially those living along the Pacific Coast. Some of the consequences of the Pearl Harbor damage came about because of the fear that the Japanese population on the Hawaiian Islands were committed to the Japanese Empire and its Emperor, Hirohito.  While some of the approximately 150,000 Japanese living on the islands were no doubt spies for the Japanese military, most were American citizens loyal to their adopted country. Many were born in the U.S., the nisei (first generation) or sansei (second generation) individuals. A few were issei, those not born in this country and ineligible for U.S. citizenship.

Tokio_Kid_SayThe ships in Pearl Harbor and the planes at the various air bases, such as Hickam Field, were tightly paced for security from feared attacks by Japanese saboteurs. These attacks were not expected were expected from Japanese residents of the Hawaiian Islands, not from planes coming in from into the Pearl Harbor from aircraft carriers off the north coast of Hawaii. Because the threat was expected from within, so the ships were clustered around Ford Island in Pearl and the aircraft on the Army Air Force bases such as Hickam Field were clustered in small groups on the field.

When the Japanese planes swept into the harbor, these tightly-packed ships and aircraft became easy targets for the bombs and torpedoes. A majority of our loses of men and equipment were due to the anticipation of the attack from Japanese saboteurs on the islands, not from four aircraft carriers that had traversed the Pacific to launch the surprise attack on that fateful Sunday morning.

Following the declaration of war against the Empire of Japan, the prejudges of the American military and civilian leaders against the Japanese population flourished among these leaders. These prejudices had been escalating, especially on the west coast, since the early 1900s. In 1905, California, the home of over 90% of the Japanese Americans, passed the “anti-miscegenation” law that outlawed the marriage between Caucasians and “Mongolians” (those from East Asia). Students in many communities like San Francisco were transferred to schools within the local Chinatown. In fact, in 1924, an “Oriental Exclusion Law” blocked Japanese immigrants from gaining U.S. citizenship. Thus, the actions at the start of our war with Japan came from a long period of resentment and discrimination against the Japanese.

Not unlike the Jews in Germany during the 1930s, the Japanese had become successful businessmen and farmers throughout California. They had become excellent farmers who out-produced their American neighbors. These American farmers welcomed the war as an opportunity to remove their Japanese American neighbors from their lands so they could take them over. In the cities, both civilian and military leaders had the same fear of Japanese sabotage as was found in pre-Pearl Harbor Hawaii. While the FBI had found little evidence of such collaboration with the Japanese forces, either via direct contact or through radio links, there was a great fear on the west coast that the Japanese could attack the coast at any moment.

This led FDR to issue Executive Order 9066 on February 19, 1942. This order created “military areas” from which any person could be excluded. These exclusion orders were upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1944. In the meantime, they were used as a pretense to remove the Japanese Americans, by force if necessary, from an area within 100 miles of the Pacific Ocean. When some voluntarily removed themselves further inland, this area was extended further. The order was used to force all Japanese, American citizens or not, to “Relocation Camps” which were generally located in interior, inhospitable regions of the west. It is interesting that while this order applied equally to the Hawaiian Islands, only about 1,500 of the Japanese population (out of 150,000) were interned in internment (“concentration”) camps. On the west coast, about 127,000 Japanese lived in the states along the Pacific Ocean. At least 50% of these were place in the Internment Camps like Manzanar in the Owens Valley of eastern California. This discrepancy reflects the discrimination against the Japanese that was rampant in California.

JapaneseAmericanGrocer1942So much for the basic facts of the situation. Our country has had a long history of mistreatment of minority, non-Caucasian populations. We can start with the early Native American groups encountered by the early settlers, the Trail of Tears during the Indian Removal period under President Jackson, the whole slavery issue of the African American populations and, of course, the Indian Wars in the West during the post-Civil War period. The discrimination against the immigrants from Asia who came to this country to help build the railroads, work in the mines, and grow the crops in the San Joaquin Valley of California found fertile ground in California, which had the majority of these immigrants. So the assignment of the Japanese to Internment Camps was just a continuation of that pattern of discrimination against those groups who looked or acted different from the dominant population.

I called these Internment Camps “concentration” camps with intent, since that is the language used in governmental records on the process. But let us not confuse these camps with those death camps in Nazi Germany or the camps operated by the Japanese throughout their territory of East Asia. Our camps did not try to starve the occupants. They were allowed to build adequate, though not luxurious, shelters for themselves as well as cultivate the ground. But they were deprived of their civil rights, property and most of their possessions. They were falsely accused of a lack of loyalty to their adopted (or native) country. We did them a dishonor that was finally recognized by Ronald Reagan in 1988. But by then the damage had been done!

In fact, the 442nd Infantry Battalion was an all-Nisei unit who fought valiantly during World War II in Europe and became the most decorated unit in the Army. (See my blog posting about this unit at: http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=20766 .) We need to take another look at this sad period of our nations history…

    
Photo of the Day:

    
Again, I want to leave you with a positive vision to carry you through the day.  The photo was made by Ansel Adams at the Manzanar Internment Camp in the Owens Valley of California. This area had been a rich agricultural area before Los Angeles “stole” the water from the Owens River in the early 1900s to fuel the growth of the LA Basin. Those Japanese settled here made an adequate life for themselves until they were released at the end of the war. The valley is beautiful, but not as hospitable as those homes that they had been forced to abandon. Let us remember this sad part in our nation’s history and vow never to repeat it again…
    

_Manzanar Internment Camp, Ansel Adams

Tom Kobayashi, Landscape, Manzanar Relocation Center, California
Photograph & Copyrighted by Ansel Adams.

    

Copyright©2011 • All Rights Reserved

         

References

    

Background information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: Japanese American Internment…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_American_internment

Prof. Boerner’s Explorations: Pearl Harbor: The Interment of the Japanese-Americans…
http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=5491

Brainy Quote: Internment (Camps) Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/internment.html

Written by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumb_thumb_

We had a slightly warmer night last night than the previous several nights. The temps only got down to the upper 30s! That is relatively warm. In fact, yesterday, Riverside got up to 78 during the day and was the warmest spot in the LA area. A regular heat spell. Today, we only got up into the lower 70s, which was nice. Tonight it’s supposed to get down only into the lower 40s; but tomorrow and the following several days we have projected temps only in the 50s. Burrrrrr. And a new storm is expected during the early morning hours of Monday morning with somewhat heavy rain storms in the 1” range. Winter is approaching with a vengeance.

_Murphy_CA_with Snow

I just got off the phone with Jack (in Indiana) and he said it was cold there — temps below freezing during the day. I hate to think what it will be during the night. They’ve also had some light snow, which may be fun for the kids, but creates a hazard on the road. But Jack is smart enough not to take his rig out on icy days, although he says the snow doesn’t really bother him. But Liz has to drive about 40 miles to work, which would worry me. I know how I hated to have to drive about that distance to teach in Azusa for all those years. But I guess that people back in the mid-west know how to drive in inclement weather; they can have it! I like my options: when I want snow, I can drive for about an hour up to Running Springs or Lake Arrowhead and they return to the lowlands where it is dry.

I hope that people in the San Gabriel valley and foothills that had so much wind damage last week will be able to weather the storm. They’ve been through enough; they don’t need rain damage as well. But, I guess that is not an option to avoid the gifts of Mother Nature. The biggest problem will probably be in the areas with lots of downed trees (and debris from the cutting of those trees) that is still is on the sides their roads. If that debris clogs the storm drains and/or fills the catch basins used to capture excess run-off water, some homes could get flooded out. Likewise, streets could flood and create a dangerous commuting situation.

These areas and the families living there need our “Good Thoughts” and prayers. They have been through enough already. Let’s pray that the cities will, in fact, be spared any further damage…  GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 2158 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Jimmy Doolittle (Raiders):

    

“If we should have to fight, we should be prepared to so so from the neck up instead of from the neck down.”
— Jimmy Doolittle

“The first lesson is that you can’t lose a war if you have command of the air, and you can’t win a war if you haven’t.”
— Jimmy Doolittle

“If you want to go anywhere in modern war, in the air, on the sea, on the land, you must have command of the air.”
— William Halsey

“There are no extraordinary men… just extraordinary circumstances that ordinary men are forced to deal with.”
— William Halsey

    

Recovering from Pearl Harbor — The Doolittle Raid on the Japanese Home Islands…

    

Well, yesterday we looked at the Japanese attack on the Midway Island bases in the months following the surprise attack on our Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor. But why pick these islands half-way between the Japanese home islands and the US bases in Hawaii? It was the direct result of an event that transpired two months prior to the June attack at Midway. What was this attack? On April 18, 1942, a small naval taskforce consisting of two aircraft carriers and some cruisers and destroyers (and their support ships) that made their way, under the leadership of Halsey on the Enterprise. A new carrier, the Hornet, rendezvoused with Halsey’s contingent in the mid-Pacific. 

B-25 taking off from aircraft carrierSo what was so special with that task force, and the Hornet that was on its maiden voyage? If you were to have seen it, it would look like almost every other  aircraft carrier in service. There was a large (for the time) flight deck. There was the typical command and navigation superstructure on one side of the ship, along with the smokestack from the boilers. But what were those planes on deck? They didn’t look like any other fighter aircraft in service in the Pacific at that time. They had two engines and two rudders on the tail. And they were BIG! Why? Because they were Mitchell B-25 bombers!

Who ever heard of bombers operating from the deck of an aircraft carrier before? No One! Bombers, with their normal supply of gasoline and ordinance load, would require a much longer runway to gain the airspeed reach flight speed than was available on the deck of a carrier, even a new one like the Hornet. But they were there. All sixteen of them were sitting on the deck waiting to take off. And why? They were tasked with a very special mission — to deliver a bomb load to the Japanese home islands, especially Tokyo.

The leader of this exceptional mission was Colonel James Doolittle. Doolittle was probably one of the few men who could have pulled off this feat. He was an award winning racing pilot. He was a experienced test pilot. He was an aeronautical engineer with degrees from M.I.T. And he pioneered instrument flying. All this in the period between the two world wars. He was called upon by General Hap Arnold to fulfill FDR’s charge to deliver a warning blow to Japan in the wake of the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.

Tokoyo Fliers

USAF - Tokyo Raid - On 18 April 1942, airmen of the US Army Air Forces, led by Lt. Col. James H. (Jimmy) Doolittle, carried the battle of the Pacific to the heart of the Japanese empire with a surprising and daring raid on military targets at Tokoyo, Yokohama, Yokosuka, Nagoya, and Kobe.

This historic attack against these major cities was the result of coordination between the Army Air Forces and the US Navy, which carried the sixteen North American b-25 medium bombers aboard the carrier USS Hornet to within take-off distances of the Japanese Islands.  Despite the rough seas this B-25 bomber becomes airborne on last leg of its journey to the Japanese mainland.Doolittle trained a select group of pilots, selected an appropriate plane (the B-25), and modified these planes for the special mission by removing all unnecessary equipment from the plane. These B-25s would be fitted with extra fuel tanks so they would allow the planes to takeoff about 600 miles from Japan, deliver their ordinance over selected Japanese cities, and fly to friendly air fields in China. This special set of air crews were able to use special techniques to get their planes up to take off air speed in 500 feet when these techniques were combined with the ship’s motion and any winds available at takeoff in less than the distance provided by the carrier deck!

As these the task force approached the Japanese islands, they were detected by picket ships disguised as fishing trollers. Therefore, on April 18th Doolittle’s raiders took to the air and started their fateful mission. All planes took off successfully, reached their targets over the home islands without interception, and dropped their bombs. This took the Japanese leaders by complete surprise, and came as a shock to the populace, since they had been told that the islands were impenetrable! They were not.

After dropping their payloads, the B-25s were low on fuel and most barely reached the China coast. Most survived and were returned to the states. But the damage was done, and the Japanese military were forced to take a bold action at Midway Island during those days in June, 1942. As we saw yesterday, the American victory during that confrontation resulted in the destruction of most of their top line aircraft carriers and set the tone for the ongoing island-hopping campaign to the home islands and the eventual B-29 attacks in 1945 and the dropping of the two atomic bombs…

    

    
Photo of the Day:

    
But, to return to a more uplifting thought, I want to share another image with you on this day. This sunrise was captured looking on the Back Bay Wildlife Refuge at False Cape, Virginia. It is an image that should calm our tattered souls and set our minds into a relaxed state ready to meet the challenges of another day. Take a few minutes to let it settle your own mind, today or any day in which you anticipate hectic meetings or other uncomfortable encounters at either work or in other relationships…
    

     _Back Bay Wildlife Refuge_False Cape_Virginia

(Back Bay Wildlife Refuge, False Cape, Virginia. Photographer: Unknown)
    

Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

    

References

    

Background information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Wikipedia: The Doolittle Raid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doolittle_Raid

Prof. Boerner’s Explorations: Pearl Harbor: The Doolittle Raid on Tokyo…
http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=5462

Brainy Quote: Jimmy Doolittle Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/jimmy_doolittle.html

Brainy Quote: William Halsey Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/w/william_halsey.html

Written by Gerald Boerner

    

    
Commentary:

JerryPhoto_thumb2_thumb_thumb_thumb_Talk about cold! This morning when I woke up about 5:00 am the temp was only 30 degrees, far below the 36 predicted by the Weather Channel. But what do weathermen know? It is supposed to get up to 72 degrees this afternoon, but at 1:00 pm it’s already at 73. While tonight it’s predicted to get down to 36, but I’m guessing that it will probably end up like today, getting somewhere below freezing again. And, then, the seven day forecast shows us getting cooler by about ten degrees during the day with some chance of rain on Monday and Tuesday of next week. Old man winter is going to beat the Winter Solstice (December 21st) this year, I guess. But, I was complaining about the heat only a couple of weeks ago!

_tree_green_street_pasadena_thumb[6]

Our wind damage problems from a week ago are still with us. The good news is that all but about 50 homes seem to be back on electricity again. That is truly good news. The bad news is that the debris from the fallen trees apparently is still in the streets by the pictures on the news programs. If we get the rains in any great intensity next week, we will have the possibility of flooding. The movable debris will enter the storm drains and catch basins, clog them up. and the water will rise to flood houses and businesses. The city crews are predicting that removing the debris in the streets could take several weeks.

Maybe that task will turn into one of their New Year’s Resolutions! “I will clean up my mess. I will clean up my mess.” Maybe if we had the city workers who are not getting this job completed should have to write this 100 times for their first missed deadline. And, maybe the second offense should be 500 times. It worked for us when we were in school, so why not now. LOL.

After I get this written and posted on my blog, I will go outside and soak up some of those great rays. As usual, it was nice watching the spikes of golden sunshine were making their way through the trees. I looked out with my fresh cup of coffee, and the pool was crystal clear. This is another day given to God’s children to enjoy and be productive in… GLB

These Introductory Comments are copyrighted:
Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

[ 1402 Words ]
    

    

Quotations Related to Midway (Islands):

    

“After the Battle of Midway there was a week in a rest camp at Pearl Harbor.”
— Jack Adams

“Our citizens can now rejoice that a momentous victory is in the making. Perhaps we will be forgiven if we claim we are about midway to our objective.”
— Admiral Chester Nimitz

“The good news was that Enterprise and the newly arrived Yorktown had attacked the Marshall and Gilbert islands. Those attacks had a great effect on morale.”
— Jack Adams

“On December 5, 1941, Chicago led a task force built around the carrier Lexington to Midway Island, at the western end of the Hawaiian Islands, about 1,000 miles from Pearl Harbor.”
— Jack Adams

    

My Musings of the Day: Recovering from Pearl Harbor — Battle of Midway…

    

While having breakfast, Rosie called saying she was having trouble with her printer. When she got her new computer a couple of years ago (a Dell, I believe), she also brought home a new Dell all-in-one printer. Selling packages like this probably doesn’t do the consumer any favors since these are not the best devices for most people, especially the cheap all-in-one’s gadgets. Apparently, the scanner and copier portion was kaput! copies were coming out as one black page! It just reinforces my experience that for printers, I prefer either an Hewlett-Packard (HP), Epson, or Canon. I have not had good experiences with the other brands. It’s too bad Rosie had such a bad experience, but perhaps we were able to help her get through it a little better.

_ThirtySecondsOverTokyoBut getting on into my main topic for today, the United States battle with the Japanese Navy at the Midway Islands in June of 1942, only a few months after the surprise attack on our Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. During the previous April, Jimmy Doolittle had taken his select group of pilots on their surprise attack over the Japanese home islands. I remember with pride watching the movie “30 Seconds over Tokyo” at the movies after the war; it was very patriotic and uplifting, which was the intended purpose of the Doolittle Raiders. The book, by the way, was written Captain Ted W. Lawson, one of the members of the Doolittle Raiders. But we will look at this raid on the home islands more tomorrow.

Today, I want to focus on just what happens when a “Sleeping Giant” is awoken. The Battle of Midway took place shortly after the Battle of the Coral Sea in which we came away the worse off for wear. One of our aircraft carriers, the Yorktown, was damaged and had to “limp” back to Pearl for repair. While our carriers were in port there, the cryptologists at Station HYPO had started to decode large portions of Japanese naval communications, the JN-25 code, and detected large amounts of coded messages referring to a location “AF”. The destination associated with this designation was unknown to us. Through a little shuffling through older intercepts, it looked like this code may be associated with the marine bases on the Midway Islands.

To verify this linkage, a clear text voice message was made from the Midway base that their water converter was “out”. This resulted in a coded Japanese message referring to the water converter on “AF” being out! This confirmed Midway as the target of the next assault. The goal of that raid upon the base and airfield on Midway was to draw out our carriers so they could be eliminated. But now that we knew, thanks to the codebreakers, their intent and target, Nimitz ordered a carrier task force to that location to “trap” the Japanese carriers. This trap worked better than expected.

Our three carriers laid in wait for the arrival of the Japanese task force. Their search planes discovered them after launching the first wave of planes, equipped with bombs, to attack Midway. But, because of the early warning, the troops were ready. They still took it on the chin, but our carriers had launched a wave of fighters, torpedo planes, and dive bombers to attack the Japanese carriers. These planes arrived just as the carriers were ready to launch the second wave… Without going into nauseating detail on the battle, we destroyed most of the carriers that were used in the attack on Pearl Harbor before all the dust had cleared. We lost the Yorktown.

G13065_USS_Yorktown_Pearl_Harbor_May_1942The victory effectively neutralized the Japanese naval aircraft carriers. After the Battle of Midway, they were held in reserve to defend the home islands. This was not only our first victory in the Pacific War, but was a transfer of airpower from the Japanese to the American forces. We would complete a island-hopping campaign on our way to the Japanese home islands. We would move, with high casualties from one island to the next major target all across the Pacific. In the Pacific Theater, we would have the upper-hand in the air war; when the B-29s came on the scene, the long range bombing of Japan would begin in earnest.

And that, as the story goes, was the beginning of the end…

    
Photo of the Day:

    
I want to leave you today with an image that I always find quite relaxing. This scene, with it cascade of water falling in the foreground and the mist arise above it reminds me of the absolute soothing sounds of the falling water. The mist reminds me of a nice hot shower falling upon my tired body. It creates a cathedral in the valley with the sweet chords of the cascade creating the music in the background. Take a few moments to relax and enjoy this scene.
    

_Ethereal Waterfall

(The Photographer of this image is unknown.)
    

Copyright©2011 — Gerald Boerner — All Rights Reserved

    

References

    

Background information is from Wikipedia articles on:

Prof. Boerner’s Explorations: Pearl Harbor: America Rebounds at Midway…
http://www.boerner.net/jboerner/?p=5403

Brainy Quote: Midway (Island) Quotes…
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/midway.html